Deploying and Upgrading (In Development)

Deploying and Upgrading Strimzi (In Development)

Table of Contents

1. Deployment overview

Strimzi simplifies the process of running Apache Kafka in a Kubernetes cluster.

This guide provides instructions on all the options available for deploying and upgrading Strimzi, describing what is deployed, and the order of deployment required to run Apache Kafka in a Kubernetes cluster.

As well as describing the deployment steps, the guide also provides pre- and post-deployment instructions to prepare for and verify a deployment. Additional deployment options described include the steps to introduce metrics. Upgrade instructions are provided for Strimzi and Kafka upgrades.

Strimzi is designed to work on all types of Kubernetes cluster regardless of distribution, from public and private clouds to local deployments intended for development.

1.1. How Strimzi supports Kafka

Strimzi provides container images and Operators for running Kafka on Kubernetes. Strimzi Operators are fundamental to the running of Strimzi. The Operators provided with Strimzi are purpose-built with specialist operational knowledge to effectively manage Kafka.

Operators simplify the process of:

  • Deploying and running Kafka clusters

  • Deploying and running Kafka components

  • Configuring access to Kafka

  • Securing access to Kafka

  • Upgrading Kafka

  • Managing brokers

  • Creating and managing topics

  • Creating and managing users

1.2. Strimzi Operators

Strimzi supports Kafka using Operators to deploy and manage the components and dependencies of Kafka to Kubernetes.

Operators are a method of packaging, deploying, and managing a Kubernetes application. Strimzi Operators extend Kubernetes functionality, automating common and complex tasks related to a Kafka deployment. By implementing knowledge of Kafka operations in code, Kafka administration tasks are simplified and require less manual intervention.

Operators

Strimzi provides Operators for managing a Kafka cluster running within a Kubernetes cluster.

Cluster Operator

Deploys and manages Apache Kafka clusters, Kafka Connect, Kafka MirrorMaker, Kafka Bridge, Kafka Exporter, and the Entity Operator

Entity Operator

Comprises the Topic Operator and User Operator

Topic Operator

Manages Kafka topics

User Operator

Manages Kafka users

The Cluster Operator can deploy the Topic Operator and User Operator as part of an Entity Operator configuration at the same time as a Kafka cluster.

Operators within the Strimzi architecture

Operators within the Strimzi architecture

1.2.1. Cluster Operator

Strimzi uses the Cluster Operator to deploy and manage clusters for:

  • Kafka (including ZooKeeper, Entity Operator, Kafka Exporter, and Cruise Control)

  • Kafka Connect

  • Kafka MirrorMaker

  • Kafka Bridge

Custom resources are used to deploy the clusters.

For example, to deploy a Kafka cluster:

  • A Kafka resource with the cluster configuration is created within the Kubernetes cluster.

  • The Cluster Operator deploys a corresponding Kafka cluster, based on what is declared in the Kafka resource.

The Cluster Operator can also deploy (through configuration of the Kafka resource):

  • A Topic Operator to provide operator-style topic management through KafkaTopic custom resources

  • A User Operator to provide operator-style user management through KafkaUser custom resources

The Topic Operator and User Operator function within the Entity Operator on deployment.

Example architecture for the Cluster Operator

The Cluster Operator creates and deploys Kafka and ZooKeeper clusters

1.2.2. Topic Operator

The Topic Operator provides a way of managing topics in a Kafka cluster through Kubernetes resources.

Example architecture for the Topic Operator

The Topic Operator manages topics for a Kafka cluster via KafkaTopic resources

The role of the Topic Operator is to keep a set of KafkaTopic Kubernetes resources describing Kafka topics in-sync with corresponding Kafka topics.

Specifically, if a KafkaTopic is:

  • Created, the Topic Operator creates the topic

  • Deleted, the Topic Operator deletes the topic

  • Changed, the Topic Operator updates the topic

Working in the other direction, if a topic is:

  • Created within the Kafka cluster, the Operator creates a KafkaTopic

  • Deleted from the Kafka cluster, the Operator deletes the KafkaTopic

  • Changed in the Kafka cluster, the Operator updates the KafkaTopic

This allows you to declare a KafkaTopic as part of your application’s deployment and the Topic Operator will take care of creating the topic for you. Your application just needs to deal with producing or consuming from the necessary topics.

The Topic Operator maintains information about each topic in a topic store, which is continually synchronized with updates from Kafka topics or Kubernetes KafkaTopic custom resources. Updates from operations applied to a local in-memory topic store are persisted to a backup topic store on disk. If a topic is reconfigured or reassigned to other brokers, the KafkaTopic will always be up to date.

1.2.3. User Operator

The User Operator manages Kafka users for a Kafka cluster by watching for KafkaUser resources that describe Kafka users, and ensuring that they are configured properly in the Kafka cluster.

For example, if a KafkaUser is:

  • Created, the User Operator creates the user it describes

  • Deleted, the User Operator deletes the user it describes

  • Changed, the User Operator updates the user it describes

Unlike the Topic Operator, the User Operator does not sync any changes from the Kafka cluster with the Kubernetes resources. Kafka topics can be created by applications directly in Kafka, but it is not expected that the users will be managed directly in the Kafka cluster in parallel with the User Operator.

The User Operator allows you to declare a KafkaUser resource as part of your application’s deployment. You can specify the authentication and authorization mechanism for the user. You can also configure user quotas that control usage of Kafka resources to ensure, for example, that a user does not monopolize access to a broker.

When the user is created, the user credentials are created in a Secret. Your application needs to use the user and its credentials for authentication and to produce or consume messages.

In addition to managing credentials for authentication, the User Operator also manages authorization rules by including a description of the user’s access rights in the KafkaUser declaration.

1.2.4. Feature gates in Strimzi Operators

You can enable and disable some features of operators using feature gates.

Feature gates are set in the operator configuration and have three stages of maturity: alpha, beta, or General Availability (GA).

For more information, see Feature gates.

1.3. Strimzi custom resources

A deployment of Kafka components to a Kubernetes cluster using Strimzi is highly configurable through the application of custom resources. Custom resources are created as instances of APIs added by Custom resource definitions (CRDs) to extend Kubernetes resources.

CRDs act as configuration instructions to describe the custom resources in a Kubernetes cluster, and are provided with Strimzi for each Kafka component used in a deployment, as well as users and topics. CRDs and custom resources are defined as YAML files. Example YAML files are provided with the Strimzi distribution.

CRDs also allow Strimzi resources to benefit from native Kubernetes features like CLI accessibility and configuration validation.

1.3.1. Strimzi custom resource example

CRDs require a one-time installation in a cluster to define the schemas used to instantiate and manage Strimzi-specific resources.

After a new custom resource type is added to your cluster by installing a CRD, you can create instances of the resource based on its specification.

Depending on the cluster setup, installation typically requires cluster admin privileges.

Note
Access to manage custom resources is limited to Strimzi administrators. For more information, see Designating Strimzi administrators in the Deploying and Upgrading Strimzi guide.

A CRD defines a new kind of resource, such as kind:Kafka, within a Kubernetes cluster.

The Kubernetes API server allows custom resources to be created based on the kind and understands from the CRD how to validate and store the custom resource when it is added to the Kubernetes cluster.

Warning
When CRDs are deleted, custom resources of that type are also deleted. Additionally, the resources created by the custom resource, such as pods and statefulsets are also deleted.

Each Strimzi-specific custom resource conforms to the schema defined by the CRD for the resource’s kind. The custom resources for Strimzi components have common configuration properties, which are defined under spec.

To understand the relationship between a CRD and a custom resource, let’s look at a sample of the CRD for a Kafka topic.

Kafka topic CRD
apiVersion: kafka.strimzi.io/v1beta2
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
metadata: (1)
  name: kafkatopics.kafka.strimzi.io
  labels:
    app: strimzi
spec: (2)
  group: kafka.strimzi.io
  versions:
    v1beta2
  scope: Namespaced
  names:
    # ...
    singular: kafkatopic
    plural: kafkatopics
    shortNames:
    - kt (3)
  additionalPrinterColumns: (4)
      # ...
  subresources:
    status: {} (5)
  validation: (6)
    openAPIV3Schema:
      properties:
        spec:
          type: object
          properties:
            partitions:
              type: integer
              minimum: 1
            replicas:
              type: integer
              minimum: 1
              maximum: 32767
      # ...
  1. The metadata for the topic CRD, its name and a label to identify the CRD.

  2. The specification for this CRD, including the group (domain) name, the plural name and the supported schema version, which are used in the URL to access the API of the topic. The other names are used to identify instance resources in the CLI. For example, kubectl get kafkatopic my-topic or kubectl get kafkatopics.

  3. The shortname can be used in CLI commands. For example, kubectl get kt can be used as an abbreviation instead of kubectl get kafkatopic.

  4. The information presented when using a get command on the custom resource.

  5. The current status of the CRD as described in the schema reference for the resource.

  6. openAPIV3Schema validation provides validation for the creation of topic custom resources. For example, a topic requires at least one partition and one replica.

Note
You can identify the CRD YAML files supplied with the Strimzi installation files, because the file names contain an index number followed by ‘Crd’.

Here is a corresponding example of a KafkaTopic custom resource.

Kafka topic custom resource
apiVersion: kafka.strimzi.io/v1beta2
kind: KafkaTopic (1)
metadata:
  name: my-topic
  labels:
    strimzi.io/cluster: my-cluster (2)
spec: (3)
  partitions: 1
  replicas: 1
  config:
    retention.ms: 7200000
    segment.bytes: 1073741824
status:
  conditions: (4)
    lastTransitionTime: "2019-08-20T11:37:00.706Z"
    status: "True"
    type: Ready
  observedGeneration: 1
  / ...
  1. The kind and apiVersion identify the CRD of which the custom resource is an instance.

  2. A label, applicable only to KafkaTopic and KafkaUser resources, that defines the name of the Kafka cluster (which is same as the name of the Kafka resource) to which a topic or user belongs.

  3. The spec shows the number of partitions and replicas for the topic as well as the configuration parameters for the topic itself. In this example, the retention period for a message to remain in the topic and the segment file size for the log are specified.

  4. Status conditions for the KafkaTopic resource. The type condition changed to Ready at the lastTransitionTime.

Custom resources can be applied to a cluster through the platform CLI. When the custom resource is created, it uses the same validation as the built-in resources of the Kubernetes API.

After a KafkaTopic custom resource is created, the Topic Operator is notified and corresponding Kafka topics are created in Strimzi.

2. What is deployed with Strimzi

Apache Kafka components are provided for deployment to Kubernetes with the Strimzi distribution. The Kafka components are generally run as clusters for availability.

A typical deployment incorporating Kafka components might include:

  • Kafka cluster of broker nodes

  • ZooKeeper cluster of replicated ZooKeeper instances

  • Kafka Connect cluster for external data connections

  • Kafka MirrorMaker cluster to mirror the Kafka cluster in a secondary cluster

  • Kafka Exporter to extract additional Kafka metrics data for monitoring

  • Kafka Bridge to make HTTP-based requests to the Kafka cluster

Not all of these components are mandatory, though you need Kafka and ZooKeeper as a minimum. Some components can be deployed without Kafka, such as MirrorMaker or Kafka Connect.

2.1. Order of deployment

The required order of deployment to a Kubernetes cluster is as follows:

  1. Deploy the Cluster Operator to manage your Kafka cluster

  2. Deploy the Kafka cluster with the ZooKeeper cluster, and include the Topic Operator and User Operator in the deployment

  3. Optionally deploy:

    • The Topic Operator and User Operator standalone if you did not deploy them with the Kafka cluster

    • Kafka Connect

    • Kafka MirrorMaker

    • Kafka Bridge

    • Components for the monitoring of metrics

2.2. Additional deployment configuration options

The deployment procedures in this guide describe a deployment using the example installation YAML files provided with Strimzi. The procedures highlight any important configuration considerations, but they do not describe all the configuration options available.

You can use custom resources to refine your deployment.

You may wish to review the configuration options available for Kafka components before you deploy Strimzi. For more information on the configuration through custom resources, see Deployment configuration in the Using Strimzi guide.

2.2.1. Securing Kafka

On deployment, the Cluster Operator automatically sets up TLS certificates for data encryption and authentication within your cluster.

Strimzi provides additional configuration options for encryption, authentication and authorization, which are described in the Using Strimzi guide:

2.2.2. Monitoring your deployment

Strimzi supports additional deployment options to monitor your deployment.

3. Preparing for your Strimzi deployment

This section shows how you prepare for a Strimzi deployment, describing:

Note
To run the commands in this guide, your cluster user must have the rights to manage role-based access control (RBAC) and CRDs.

3.1. Deployment prerequisites

To deploy Strimzi, make sure that:

  • A Kubernetes 1.16 and later cluster is available.

    If you do not have access to a Kubernetes cluster, you can install Strimzi with Minikube.

  • The kubectl command-line tool is installed and configured to connect to the running cluster.

Note
Strimzi supports some features that are specific to OpenShift, where such integration benefits OpenShift users and there is no equivalent implementation using standard Kubernetes.

oc and kubectl commands

The oc command functions as an alternative to kubectl. In almost all cases the example kubectl commands used in this guide can be done using oc simply by replacing the command name (options and arguments remain the same).

In other words, instead of using:

kubectl apply -f your-file

when using OpenShift you can use:

oc apply -f your-file
Note
As an exception to this general rule, oc uses oc adm subcommands for cluster management functionality, whereas kubectl does not make this distinction. For example, the oc equivalent of kubectl taint is oc adm taint.

3.2. Downloading Strimzi release artifacts

To install Strimzi, download the release artifacts from GitHub.

Strimzi release artifacts include sample YAML files to help you deploy the components of Strimzi to Kubernetes, perform common operations, and configure your Kafka cluster.

Use kubectl to deploy the Cluster Operator from the install/cluster-operator folder of the downloaded ZIP file. For more information about deploying and configuring the Cluster Operator, see Deploying the Cluster Operator.

In addition, if you want to use standalone installations of the Topic and User Operators with a Kafka cluster that is not managed by the Strimzi Cluster Operator, you can deploy them from the install/topic-operator and install/user-operator folders.

Note
Additionally, Strimzi container images are available through the Container Registry. However, we recommend that you use the YAML files provided to deploy Strimzi.

3.3. Pushing container images to your own registry

Container images for Strimzi are available in the Container Registry. The installation YAML files provided by Strimzi will pull the images directly from the Container Registry.

If you do not have access to the Container Registry or want to use your own container repository:

  1. Pull all container images listed here

  2. Push them into your own registry

  3. Update the image names in the YAML files used in deployment

Note
Each Kafka version supported for the release has a separate image.
Container image Namespace/Repository Description

Kafka

  • quay.io/strimzi/kafka:latest-kafka-2.7.0

  • quay.io/strimzi/kafka:latest-kafka-2.7.1

  • quay.io/strimzi/kafka:latest-kafka-2.8.0

Strimzi image for running Kafka, including:

  • Kafka Broker

  • Kafka Connect

  • Kafka MirrorMaker

  • ZooKeeper

  • TLS Sidecars

Operator

  • quay.io/strimzi/operator:latest

Strimzi image for running the operators:

  • Cluster Operator

  • Topic Operator

  • User Operator

  • Kafka Initializer

Kafka Bridge

  • quay.io/strimzi/kafka-bridge:0.20.1

Strimzi image for running the Strimzi kafka Bridge

JmxTrans

  • quay.io/strimzi/jmxtrans:latest

Strimzi image for running the Strimzi JmxTrans

3.4. Designating Strimzi administrators

Strimzi provides custom resources for configuration of your deployment. By default, permission to view, create, edit, and delete these resources is limited to Kubernetes cluster administrators. Strimzi provides two cluster roles that you can use to assign these rights to other users:

  • strimzi-view allows users to view and list Strimzi resources.

  • strimzi-admin allows users to also create, edit or delete Strimzi resources.

When you install these roles, they will automatically aggregate (add) these rights to the default Kubernetes cluster roles. strimzi-view aggregates to the view role, and strimzi-admin aggregates to the edit and admin roles. Because of the aggregation, you might not need to assign these roles to users who already have similar rights.

The following procedure shows how to assign a strimzi-admin role that allows non-cluster administrators to manage Strimzi resources.

A system administrator can designate Strimzi administrators after the Cluster Operator is deployed.

Prerequisites
Procedure
  1. Create the strimzi-view and strimzi-admin cluster roles in Kubernetes.

    kubectl create -f install/strimzi-admin
  2. If needed, assign the roles that provide access rights to users that require them.

    kubectl create clusterrolebinding strimzi-admin --clusterrole=strimzi-admin --user=user1 --user=user2

3.5. Installing a local Kubernetes cluster with Minikube

Minikube offers an easy way to get started with Kubernetes. If a Kubernetes cluster is unavailable, you can use Minikube to create a local cluster.

You can download and install Minikube from the Kubernetes website, which also provides documentation. Depending on the number of brokers you want to deploy inside the cluster, and whether you want to run Kafka Connect as well, try running Minikube with at least with 4 GB of RAM instead of the default 2 GB.

Once installed, start Minikube using:

minikube start --memory 4096

To interact with the cluster, install the kubectl utility.

4. Deploying Strimzi

The procedures assume a Kubernetes cluster is available and running.

This section describes the procedures to deploy Strimzi on Kubernetes 1.16 and later.

Note
To run the commands in this guide, your cluster user must have the rights to manage role-based access control (RBAC) and CRDs.

4.1. Create the Kafka cluster

To be able to manage a Kafka cluster with the Cluster Operator, you must deploy it as a Kafka resource. Strimzi provides example deployment files to do this. You can use these files to deploy the Topic Operator and User Operator at the same time.

If you haven’t deployed a Kafka cluster as a Kafka resource, you can’t use the Cluster Operator to manage it. This applies, for example, to a Kafka cluster running outside of Kubernetes. But you can deploy and use the Topic Operator and User Operator as standalone components.

Note
The Cluster Operator can watch one, multiple, or all namespaces in a Kubernetes cluster. The Topic Operator and User Operator watch for KafkaTopics and KafkaUsers in the single namespace of the Kafka cluster deployment.

Deploying a Kafka cluster with the Topic Operator and User Operator

Perform these deployment steps if you want to use the Topic Operator and User Operator with a Kafka cluster managed by Strimzi.

  1. Deploy the Cluster Operator

  2. Use the Cluster Operator to deploy the:

Deploying a standalone Topic Operator and User Operator

Perform these deployment steps if you want to use the Topic Operator and User Operator with a Kafka cluster that is not managed by Strimzi.

4.1.1. Deploying the Cluster Operator

The Cluster Operator is responsible for deploying and managing Apache Kafka clusters within a Kubernetes cluster.

The procedures in this section show:

Watch options for a Cluster Operator deployment

When the Cluster Operator is running, it starts to watch for updates of Kafka resources.

You can choose to deploy the Cluster Operator to watch Kafka resources from:

  • A single namespace (the same namespace containing the Cluster Operator)

  • Multiple namespaces

  • All namespaces

Note
Strimzi provides example YAML files to make the deployment process easier.

The Cluster Operator watches for changes to the following resources:

  • Kafka for the Kafka cluster.

  • KafkaConnect for the Kafka Connect cluster.

  • KafkaConnector for creating and managing connectors in a Kafka Connect cluster.

  • KafkaMirrorMaker for the Kafka MirrorMaker instance.

  • KafkaBridge for the Kafka Bridge instance

When one of these resources is created in the Kubernetes cluster, the operator gets the cluster description from the resource and starts creating a new cluster for the resource by creating the necessary Kubernetes resources, such as StatefulSets, Services and ConfigMaps.

Each time a Kafka resource is updated, the operator performs corresponding updates on the Kubernetes resources that make up the cluster for the resource.

Resources are either patched or deleted, and then recreated in order to make the cluster for the resource reflect the desired state of the cluster. This operation might cause a rolling update that might lead to service disruption.

When a resource is deleted, the operator undeploys the cluster and deletes all related Kubernetes resources.

Deploying the Cluster Operator to watch a single namespace

This procedure shows how to deploy the Cluster Operator to watch Strimzi resources in a single namespace in your Kubernetes cluster.

Prerequisites
  • This procedure requires use of a Kubernetes user account which is able to create CustomResourceDefinitions, ClusterRoles and ClusterRoleBindings. Use of Role Base Access Control (RBAC) in the Kubernetes cluster usually means that permission to create, edit, and delete these resources is limited to Kubernetes cluster administrators, such as system:admin.

Procedure
  1. Edit the Strimzi installation files to use the namespace the Cluster Operator is going to be installed into.

    For example, in this procedure the Cluster Operator is installed into the namespace my-cluster-operator-namespace.

    On Linux, use:

    sed -i 's/namespace: .*/namespace: my-cluster-operator-namespace/' install/cluster-operator/*RoleBinding*.yaml

    On MacOS, use:

    sed -i '' 's/namespace: .*/namespace: my-cluster-operator-namespace/' install/cluster-operator/*RoleBinding*.yaml
  2. Deploy the Cluster Operator:

    kubectl create -f install/cluster-operator -n my-cluster-operator-namespace
  3. Verify that the Cluster Operator was successfully deployed:

    kubectl get deployments
Deploying the Cluster Operator to watch multiple namespaces

This procedure shows how to deploy the Cluster Operator to watch Strimzi resources across multiple namespaces in your Kubernetes cluster.

Prerequisites
  • This procedure requires use of a Kubernetes user account which is able to create CustomResourceDefinitions, ClusterRoles and ClusterRoleBindings. Use of Role Base Access Control (RBAC) in the Kubernetes cluster usually means that permission to create, edit, and delete these resources is limited to Kubernetes cluster administrators, such as system:admin.

Procedure
  1. Edit the Strimzi installation files to use the namespace the Cluster Operator is going to be installed into.

    For example, in this procedure the Cluster Operator is installed into the namespace my-cluster-operator-namespace.

    On Linux, use:

    sed -i 's/namespace: .*/namespace: my-cluster-operator-namespace/' install/cluster-operator/*RoleBinding*.yaml

    On MacOS, use:

    sed -i '' 's/namespace: .*/namespace: my-cluster-operator-namespace/' install/cluster-operator/*RoleBinding*.yaml
  2. Edit the install/cluster-operator/060-Deployment-strimzi-cluster-operator.yaml file to add a list of all the namespaces the Cluster Operator will watch to the STRIMZI_NAMESPACE environment variable.

    For example, in this procedure the Cluster Operator will watch the namespaces watched-namespace-1, watched-namespace-2, watched-namespace-3.

    apiVersion: apps/v1
    kind: Deployment
    spec:
      # ...
      template:
        spec:
          serviceAccountName: strimzi-cluster-operator
          containers:
          - name: strimzi-cluster-operator
            image: quay.io/strimzi/operator:latest
            imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
            env:
            - name: STRIMZI_NAMESPACE
              value: watched-namespace-1,watched-namespace-2,watched-namespace-3
  3. For each namespace listed, install the RoleBindings.

    In this example, we replace watched-namespace in these commands with the namespaces listed in the previous step, repeating them for watched-namespace-1, watched-namespace-2, watched-namespace-3:

    kubectl create -f install/cluster-operator/020-RoleBinding-strimzi-cluster-operator.yaml -n watched-namespace
    kubectl create -f install/cluster-operator/031-RoleBinding-strimzi-cluster-operator-entity-operator-delegation.yaml -n watched-namespace
  4. Deploy the Cluster Operator:

    kubectl create -f install/cluster-operator -n my-cluster-operator-namespace
  5. Verify that the Cluster Operator was successfully deployed:

    kubectl get deployments
Deploying the Cluster Operator to watch all namespaces

This procedure shows how to deploy the Cluster Operator to watch Strimzi resources across all namespaces in your Kubernetes cluster.

When running in this mode, the Cluster Operator automatically manages clusters in any new namespaces that are created.

Prerequisites
  • This procedure requires use of a Kubernetes user account which is able to create CustomResourceDefinitions, ClusterRoles and ClusterRoleBindings. Use of Role Base Access Control (RBAC) in the Kubernetes cluster usually means that permission to create, edit, and delete these resources is limited to Kubernetes cluster administrators, such as system:admin.

Procedure
  1. Edit the Strimzi installation files to use the namespace the Cluster Operator is going to be installed into.

    For example, in this procedure the Cluster Operator is installed into the namespace my-cluster-operator-namespace.

    On Linux, use:

    sed -i 's/namespace: .*/namespace: my-cluster-operator-namespace/' install/cluster-operator/*RoleBinding*.yaml

    On MacOS, use:

    sed -i '' 's/namespace: .*/namespace: my-cluster-operator-namespace/' install/cluster-operator/*RoleBinding*.yaml
  2. Edit the install/cluster-operator/060-Deployment-strimzi-cluster-operator.yaml file to set the value of the STRIMZI_NAMESPACE environment variable to *.

    apiVersion: apps/v1
    kind: Deployment
    spec:
      # ...
      template:
        spec:
          # ...
          serviceAccountName: strimzi-cluster-operator
          containers:
          - name: strimzi-cluster-operator
            image: quay.io/strimzi/operator:latest
            imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
            env:
            - name: STRIMZI_NAMESPACE
              value: "*"
            # ...
  3. Create ClusterRoleBindings that grant cluster-wide access for all namespaces to the Cluster Operator.

    kubectl create clusterrolebinding strimzi-cluster-operator-namespaced --clusterrole=strimzi-cluster-operator-namespaced --serviceaccount my-cluster-operator-namespace:strimzi-cluster-operator
    kubectl create clusterrolebinding strimzi-cluster-operator-entity-operator-delegation --clusterrole=strimzi-entity-operator --serviceaccount my-cluster-operator-namespace:strimzi-cluster-operator

    Replace my-cluster-operator-namespace with the namespace you want to install the Cluster Operator into.

  4. Deploy the Cluster Operator to your Kubernetes cluster.

    kubectl create -f install/cluster-operator -n my-cluster-operator-namespace
  5. Verify that the Cluster Operator was successfully deployed:

    kubectl get deployments
Deploying the Cluster Operator using a Helm Chart

As an alternative to using the YAML deployment files, this procedure shows how to deploy the Cluster Operator using a Helm chart provided with Strimzi.

Prerequisites
  • The Helm client must be installed on a local machine.

  • Helm must be installed to the Kubernetes cluster.

For more information about Helm, see the Helm website.

Procedure
  1. Add the Strimzi Helm Chart repository:

    helm repo add strimzi https://strimzi.io/charts/
  2. Deploy the Cluster Operator using the Helm command line tool:

    helm install strimzi/strimzi-kafka-operator
  3. Verify that the Cluster Operator has been deployed successfully using the Helm command line tool:

    helm ls
Upgrading the Cluster Operator using Helm Chart

To upgrade the Strimzi operator, you can use the helm upgrade command. The helm upgrade command does not upgrade the Custom Resource Definitions for Helm. Install the new CRDs manually after upgrading the Cluster Operator. You can access the CRDs from GitHub or find them in the crd subdirectory inside the Helm Chart.

Deploying the Cluster Operator from OperatorHub.io

OperatorHub.io is a catalog of Kubernetes Operators sourced from multiple providers. It offers you an alternative way to install stable versions of Strimzi using the Strimzi Kafka Operator.

The Operator Lifecycle Manager is used for the installation and management of all Operators published on OperatorHub.io.

To install Strimzi from OperatorHub.io, locate the Strimzi Kafka Operator and follow the instructions provided.

4.1.2. Deploying Kafka

Apache Kafka is an open-source distributed publish-subscribe messaging system for fault-tolerant real-time data feeds.

The procedures in this section show:

When installing Kafka, Strimzi also installs a ZooKeeper cluster and adds the necessary configuration to connect Kafka with ZooKeeper.

Deploying the Kafka cluster

This procedure shows how to deploy a Kafka cluster to your Kubernetes using the Cluster Operator.

The deployment uses a YAML file to provide the specification to create a Kafka resource.

Strimzi provides example YAMLs files for deployment in examples/kafka/:

kafka-persistent.yaml

Deploys a persistent cluster with three ZooKeeper and three Kafka nodes.

kafka-jbod.yaml

Deploys a persistent cluster with three ZooKeeper and three Kafka nodes (each using multiple persistent volumes).

kafka-persistent-single.yaml

Deploys a persistent cluster with a single ZooKeeper node and a single Kafka node.

kafka-ephemeral.yaml

Deploys an ephemeral cluster with three ZooKeeper and three Kafka nodes.

kafka-ephemeral-single.yaml

Deploys an ephemeral cluster with three ZooKeeper nodes and a single Kafka node.

In this procedure, we use the examples for an ephemeral and persistent Kafka cluster deployment:

Ephemeral cluster

In general, an ephemeral (or temporary) Kafka cluster is suitable for development and testing purposes, not for production. This deployment uses emptyDir volumes for storing broker information (for ZooKeeper) and topics or partitions (for Kafka). Using an emptyDir volume means that its content is strictly related to the pod life cycle and is deleted when the pod goes down.

Persistent cluster

A persistent Kafka cluster uses PersistentVolumes to store ZooKeeper and Kafka data. The PersistentVolume is acquired using a PersistentVolumeClaim to make it independent of the actual type of the PersistentVolume. For example, it can use Amazon EBS volumes in Amazon AWS deployments without any changes in the YAML files. The PersistentVolumeClaim can use a StorageClass to trigger automatic volume provisioning.

The example YAML files specify the latest supported Kafka version, and configuration for its supported log message format version and inter-broker protocol version. Updates to these properties are required when upgrading Kafka.

The example clusters are named my-cluster by default. The cluster name is defined by the name of the resource and cannot be changed after the cluster has been deployed. To change the cluster name before you deploy the cluster, edit the Kafka.metadata.name property of the Kafka resource in the relevant YAML file.

Default cluster name and specified Kafka versions
apiVersion: kafka.strimzi.io/v1beta2
kind: Kafka
metadata:
  name: my-cluster
spec:
  kafka:
    version: 2.8.0
    #...
    config:
      #...
      log.message.format.version: 2.8
      inter.broker.protocol.version: 2.8
  # ...

For more information about configuring the Kafka resource, see Kafka cluster configuration in the Using Strimzi guide.

Procedure
  1. Create and deploy an ephemeral or persistent cluster.

    For development or testing, you might prefer to use an ephemeral cluster. You can use a persistent cluster in any situation.

    • To create and deploy an ephemeral cluster:

      kubectl apply -f examples/kafka/kafka-ephemeral.yaml
    • To create and deploy a persistent cluster:

      kubectl apply -f examples/kafka/kafka-persistent.yaml
  2. Verify that the Kafka cluster was successfully deployed:

    kubectl get deployments
Deploying the Topic Operator using the Cluster Operator

This procedure describes how to deploy the Topic Operator using the Cluster Operator.

You configure the entityOperator property of the Kafka resource to include the topicOperator. By default, the Topic Operator watches for KafkaTopics in the namespace of the Kafka cluster deployment.

If you want to use the Topic Operator with a Kafka cluster that is not managed by Strimzi, you must deploy the Topic Operator as a standalone component.

For more information about configuring the entityOperator and topicOperator properties, see Configuring the Entity Operator in the Using Strimzi guide.

Procedure
  1. Edit the entityOperator properties of the Kafka resource to include topicOperator:

    apiVersion: kafka.strimzi.io/v1beta2
    kind: Kafka
    metadata:
      name: my-cluster
    spec:
      #...
      entityOperator:
        topicOperator: {}
        userOperator: {}
  2. Configure the Topic Operator spec using the properties described in EntityTopicOperatorSpec schema reference.

    Use an empty object ({}) if you want all properties to use their default values.

  3. Create or update the resource:

    Use kubectl apply:

    kubectl apply -f <your-file>
Deploying the User Operator using the Cluster Operator

This procedure describes how to deploy the User Operator using the Cluster Operator.

You configure the entityOperator property of the Kafka resource to include the userOperator. By default, the User Operator watches for KafkaUsers in the namespace of the Kafka cluster deployment.

If you want to use the User Operator with a Kafka cluster that is not managed by Strimzi, you must deploy the User Operator as a standalone component.

For more information about configuring the entityOperator and userOperator properties, see Configuring the Entity Operator in the Using Strimzi guide.

Procedure
  1. Edit the entityOperator properties of the Kafka resource to include userOperator:

    apiVersion: kafka.strimzi.io/v1beta2
    kind: Kafka
    metadata:
      name: my-cluster
    spec:
      #...
      entityOperator:
        topicOperator: {}
        userOperator: {}
  2. Configure the User Operator spec using the properties described in EntityUserOperatorSpec schema reference in the Using Strimzi guide.

    Use an empty object ({}) if you want all properties to use their default values.

  3. Create or update the resource:

    kubectl apply -f <your-file>

4.1.3. Alternative standalone deployment options for Strimzi Operators

You can perform a standalone deployment of the Topic Operator and User Operator. Consider a standalone deployment of these operators if you are using a Kafka cluster that is not managed by the Cluster Operator.

You deploy the operators to Kubernetes. Kafka can be running outside of Kubernetes. For example, you might be using a Kafka as a managed service. You adjust the deployment configuration for the standalone operator to match the address of your Kafka cluster.

Deploying the standalone Topic Operator

This procedure shows how to deploy the Topic Operator as a standalone component for topic management. You can use a standalone Topic Operator with a Kafka cluster that is not managed by the Cluster Operator.

A standalone deployment can operate with any Kafka cluster.

Standalone deployment files are provided. Configure the 05-Deployment-strimzi-topic-operator.yaml deployment file to add the environment variables that enable the Topic Operator to connect to a Kafka cluster.

Prerequisites
  • You are running a Kafka cluster for the Topic Operator to connect to.

Procedure
  1. Edit the env properties in the install/topic-operator/05-Deployment-strimzi-topic-operator.yaml standalone deployment file.

    Example standalone Topic Operator deployment configuration
    apiVersion: apps/v1
    kind: Deployment
    metadata:
      name: strimzi-topic-operator
      labels:
        app: strimzi
    spec:
      # ...
      template:
        # ...
        spec:
          # ...
          containers:
            - name: strimzi-topic-operator
              # ...
              env:
                - name: STRIMZI_NAMESPACE (1)
                  valueFrom:
                    fieldRef:
                      fieldPath: metadata.namespace
                - name: STRIMZI_KAFKA_BOOTSTRAP_SERVERS (2)
                  value: my-kafka-bootstrap-address:9092
                - name: STRIMZI_RESOURCE_LABELS (3)
                  value: "strimzi.io/cluster=my-cluster"
                - name: STRIMZI_ZOOKEEPER_CONNECT (4)
                  value: my-cluster-zookeeper-client:2181
                - name: STRIMZI_ZOOKEEPER_SESSION_TIMEOUT_MS (5)
                  value: "18000"
                - name: STRIMZI_FULL_RECONCILIATION_INTERVAL_MS (6)
                  value: "120000"
                - name: STRIMZI_TOPIC_METADATA_MAX_ATTEMPTS (7)
                  value: "6"
                - name: STRIMZI_LOG_LEVEL (8)
                  value: INFO
                - name: STRIMZI_TLS_ENABLED (9)
                  value: "false"
                - name: STRIMZI_JAVA_OPTS (10)
                  value: "-Xmx=512M -Xms=256M"
                - name: STRIMZI_JAVA_SYSTEM_PROPERTIES (11)
                  value: "-Djavax.net.debug=verbose -DpropertyName=value"
                - name: STRIMZI_PUBLIC_CA (12)
                  value: "false"
                - name: STRIMZI_TLS_AUTH_ENABLED (13)
                  value: "false"
                - name: STRIMZI_SASL_ENABLED (14)
                  value: "false"
                - name: STRIMZI_SASL_USERNAME (15)
                  value: "admin"
                - name: STRIMZI_SASL_PASSWORD (16)
                  value: "password"
                - name: STRIMZI_SASL_MECHANISM (17)
                  value: "scram-sha-512"
                - name: STRIMZI_SECURITY_PROTOCOL (18)
                  value: "SSL"
    1. The Kubernetes namespace for the Topic Operator to watch for KafkaTopic resources. Specify the namespace of the Kafka cluster.

    2. The host and port pair of the bootstrap broker address to discover and connect to all brokers in the Kafka cluster. Use a comma-separated list to specify two or three broker addresses in case a server is down.

    3. The label selector to identify the KafkaTopic resources managed by the Topic Operator.

    4. The host and port pair of the address to connect to the ZooKeeper cluster. This must be the same ZooKeeper cluster that your Kafka cluster is using.

    5. The ZooKeeper session timeout, in milliseconds. The default is 18000 (18 seconds).

    6. The interval between periodic reconciliations, in milliseconds. The default is 120000 (2 minutes).

    7. The number of attempts at getting topic metadata from Kafka. The time between each attempt is defined as an exponential backoff. Consider increasing this value when topic creation takes more time due to the number of partitions or replicas. The default is 6 attempts.

    8. The level for printing logging messages. You can set the level to ERROR, WARNING, INFO, DEBUG, or TRACE.

    9. Enables TLS support for encrypted communication with the Kafka brokers.

    10. (Optional) The Java options used by the JVM running the Topic Operator.

    11. (Optional) The debugging (-D) options set for the Topic Operator.

    12. (Optional) Skips the generation of trust store certificates if TLS is enabled through STRIMZI_TLS_ENABLED. If this environment variable is enabled, the brokers must use a public trusted certificate authority for their TLS certificates. The default is false.

    13. (Optional) Generates key store certificates for mutual TLS authentication. Setting this to false disables client authentication with TLS to the Kafka brokers. The default is true.

    14. (Optional) Enables SASL support for client authentication when connecting to Kafka brokers. The default is false.

    15. (Optional) The SASL username for client authentication. Mandatory only if SASL is enabled through STRIMZI_SASL_ENABLED.

    16. (Optional) The SASL password for client authentication. Mandatory only if SASL is enabled through STRIMZI_SASL_ENABLED.

    17. (Optional) The SASL mechanism for client authentication. Mandatory only if SASL is enabled through STRIMZI_SASL_ENABLED. You can set the value to plain, scram-sha-256, or scram-sha-512.

    18. (Optional) The security protocol used for communication with Kafka brokers. The default value is "PLAINTEXT". You can set the value to PLAINTEXT, SSL, SASL_PLAINTEXT, or SASL_SSL.

  2. If you want to connect to Kafka brokers that are using certificates from a public certificate authority, set STRIMZI_PUBLIC_CA to true. Set this property to true, for example, if you are using Kafka on Amazon Web Services (AWS).

  3. If you enabled TLS with the STRIMZI_TLS_ENABLED environment variable, specify the keystore and truststore used to authenticate connection to the Kafka cluster.

    Example TLS configuration
    # ....
    env:
      - name: STRIMZI_TRUSTSTORE_LOCATION (1)
        value: "/path/to/truststore.p12"
      - name: STRIMZI_TRUSTSTORE_PASSWORD (2)
        value: "TRUSTSTORE-PASSWORD"
      - name: STRIMZI_KEYSTORE_LOCATION (3)
        value: "/path/to/keystore.p12"
      - name: STRIMZI_KEYSTORE_PASSWORD (4)
        value: "KEYSTORE-PASSWORD"
    # ...
    1. The truststore contains the public key (ca.crt) value of the Certificate Authority used to sign new user certificates for TLS client authentication.

    2. The password for accessing the truststore.

    3. The keystore contains the private key (ca.key) of the Certificate Authority for signing new user certificates for TLS client authentication.

    4. The password for accessing the keystore.

  4. Deploy the Topic Operator.

    kubectl create -f install/topic-operator
  5. Verify that the Topic Operator has been deployed successfully.

    kubectl describe deployment strimzi-topic-operator

    The Topic Operator is deployed when the Replicas entry shows 1 available.

    Note
    You may experience a delay with the deployment if you have a slow connection to the Kubernetes cluster and the Topic Operator images have not been downloaded before.
Deploying the standalone User Operator

This procedure shows how to deploy the User Operator as a standalone component for user management. You can use a standalone User Operator with a Kafka cluster that is not managed by the Cluster Operator.

A standalone deployment can operate with any Kafka cluster.

Standalone deployment files are provided. Edit the 05-Deployment-strimzi-user-operator.yaml deployment file to add the environment variables that enable the User Operator to connect to a Kafka cluster.

Prerequisites
  • You are running a Kafka cluster for the User Operator to connect to.

Procedure
  1. Edit the following env properties in the install/user-operator/05-Deployment-strimzi-user-operator.yaml standalone deployment file.

    Example standalone User Operator deployment configuration
    apiVersion: apps/v1
    kind: Deployment
    metadata:
      name: strimzi-user-operator
      labels:
        app: strimzi
    spec:
      # ...
      template:
        # ...
        spec:
          # ...
          containers:
            - name: strimzi-user-operator
              # ...
              env:
                - name: STRIMZI_NAMESPACE (1)
                  valueFrom:
                    fieldRef:
                      fieldPath: metadata.namespace
                - name: STRIMZI_KAFKA_BOOTSTRAP_SERVERS (2)
                  value: my-kafka-bootstrap-address:9092
                - name: STRIMZI_CA_CERT_NAME (3)
                  value: my-cluster-clients-ca-cert
                - name: STRIMZI_CA_KEY_NAME (4)
                  value: my-cluster-clients-ca
                - name: STRIMZI_LABELS (5)
                  value: "strimzi.io/cluster=my-cluster"
                - name: STRIMZI_FULL_RECONCILIATION_INTERVAL_MS (6)
                  value: "120000"
                - name: STRIMZI_LOG_LEVEL (7)
                  value: INFO
                - name: STRIMZI_GC_LOG_ENABLED (8)
                  value: "true"
                - name: STRIMZI_CA_VALIDITY (9)
                  value: "365"
                - name: STRIMZI_CA_RENEWAL (10)
                  value: "30"
                - name: STRIMZI_JAVA_OPTS (11)
                  value: "-Xmx=512M -Xms=256M"
                - name: STRIMZI_JAVA_SYSTEM_PROPERTIES (12)
                  value: "-Djavax.net.debug=verbose -DpropertyName=value"
                - name: STRIMZI_SECRET_PREFIX (13)
                  value: "kafka-"
                - name: STRIMZI_ACLS_ADMIN_API_SUPPORTED (14)
                  value: "true"
    1. The Kubernetes namespace for the User Operator to watch for KafkaUser resources. Only one namespace can be specified.

    2. The host and port pair of the bootstrap broker address to discover and connect to all brokers in the Kafka cluster. Use a comma-separated list to specify two or three broker addresses in case a server is down.

    3. The Kubernetes Secret that contains the public key (ca.crt) value of the Certificate Authority that signs new user certificates for TLS client authentication.

    4. The Kubernetes Secret that contains the private key (ca.key) value of the Certificate Authority that signs new user certificates for TLS client authentication.

    5. The label selector used to identify the KafkaUser resources managed by the User Operator.

    6. The interval between periodic reconciliations, in milliseconds. The default is 120000 (2 minutes). The default is 18000 (18 seconds).

    7. The level for printing logging messages. You can set the level to ERROR, WARNING, INFO, DEBUG, or TRACE.

    8. Enables garbage collection (GC) logging. The default is true.

    9. The validity period for the Certificate Authority. The default is 365 days.

    10. The renewal period for the Certificate Authority. The renewal period is measured backwards from the expiry date of the current certificate. The default is 30 days to initiate certificate renewal before the old certificates expire.

    11. (Optional) The Java options used by the JVM running the User Operator

    12. (Optional) The debugging (-D) options set for the User Operator

    13. (Optional) Prefix for the names of Kubernetes secrets created by the User Operator.

    14. (Optional) Indicates whether the Kafka cluster supports management of authorization ACL rules using the Kafka Admin API. When set to false, the User Operator will reject all resources with simple authorization ACL rules. This helps to avoid unnecessary exceptions in the Kafka cluster logs. The default is true.

  2. If you are using TLS to connect to the Kafka cluster, specify the secrets used to authenticate connection. Otherwise, go to the next step.

    Example TLS configuration
    # ....
    env:
      - name: STRIMZI_CLUSTER_CA_CERT_SECRET_NAME (1)
        value: my-cluster-cluster-cert
      - name: STRIMZI_EO_KEY_SECRET_NAME (2)
        value: my-cluster-cluster-ca
    # ..."
    1. The Kubernetes Secret that contains the public key (ca.crt) value of the Certificate Authority that signs Kafka broker certificates for TLS client authentication.

    2. The Kubernetes Secret that contains the keystore (entity-operator_.p12) with the private key and certificate for TLS authentication against the Kafka cluster. The Secret must also contain the password (entity-operator_.password) for accessing the keystore.

  3. Deploy the User Operator.

    kubectl create -f install/user-operator
  4. Verify that the User Operator has been deployed successfully.

    kubectl describe deployment strimzi-user-operator

    The User Operator is deployed when the Replicas entry shows 1 available.

    Note
    You might experience a delay with the deployment if you have a slow connection to the Kubernetes cluster and the User Operator images have not been downloaded before.

4.2. Deploy Kafka Connect

Kafka Connect is a tool for streaming data between Apache Kafka and external systems.

In Strimzi, Kafka Connect is deployed in distributed mode. Kafka Connect can also work in standalone mode, but this is not supported by Strimzi.

Using the concept of connectors, Kafka Connect provides a framework for moving large amounts of data into and out of your Kafka cluster while maintaining scalability and reliability.

Kafka Connect is typically used to integrate Kafka with external databases and storage and messaging systems.

The procedures in this section show how to:

Note
The term connector is used interchangeably to mean a connector instance running within a Kafka Connect cluster, or a connector class. In this guide, the term connector is used when the meaning is clear from the context.

4.2.1. Deploying Kafka Connect to your Kubernetes cluster

This procedure shows how to deploy a Kafka Connect cluster to your Kubernetes cluster using the Cluster Operator.

A Kafka Connect cluster is implemented as a Deployment with a configurable number of nodes (also called workers) that distribute the workload of connectors as tasks so that the message flow is highly scalable and reliable.

The deployment uses a YAML file to provide the specification to create a KafkaConnect resource.

In this procedure, we use the example file provided with Strimzi:

  • examples/connect/kafka-connect.yaml

For information about configuring the KafkaConnect resource, see Kafka Connect cluster configuration in the Using Strimzi guide.

Procedure
  1. Deploy Kafka Connect to your Kubernetes cluster. Use the examples/connect/kafka-connect.yaml file to deploy Kafka Connect.

    kubectl apply -f examples/connect/kafka-connect.yaml
  2. Verify that Kafka Connect was successfully deployed:

    kubectl get deployments

4.2.2. Kafka Connect configuration for multiple instances

If you are running multiple instances of Kafka Connect, you have to change the default configuration of the following config properties:

apiVersion: kafka.strimzi.io/v1beta2
kind: KafkaConnect
metadata:
  name: my-connect
spec:
  # ...
  config:
    group.id: connect-cluster (1)
    offset.storage.topic: connect-cluster-offsets (2)
    config.storage.topic: connect-cluster-configs (3)
    status.storage.topic: connect-cluster-status  (4)
    # ...
# ...
  1. Kafka Connect cluster group that the instance belongs to.

  2. Kafka topic that stores connector offsets.

  3. Kafka topic that stores connector and task status configurations.

  4. Kafka topic that stores connector and task status updates.

Note
Values for the three topics must be the same for all Kafka Connect instances with the same group.id.

Unless you change the default settings, each Kafka Connect instance connecting to the same Kafka cluster is deployed with the same values. What happens, in effect, is all instances are coupled to run in a cluster and use the same topics.

If multiple Kafka Connect clusters try to use the same topics, Kafka Connect will not work as expected and generate errors.

If you wish to run multiple Kafka Connect instances, change the values of these properties for each instance.

4.2.3. Extending Kafka Connect with connector plug-ins

The Strimzi container images for Kafka Connect include two built-in file connectors for moving file-based data into and out of your Kafka cluster.

Table 1. File connectors
File Connector Description

FileStreamSourceConnector

Transfers data to your Kafka cluster from a file (the source).

FileStreamSinkConnector

Transfers data from your Kafka cluster to a file (the sink).

The procedures in this section show how to add your own connector classes to connector images by:

Important
You create the configuration for connectors directly using the Kafka Connect REST API or KafkaConnector custom resources.
Creating a new container image automatically using Strimzi

This procedure shows how to configure Kafka Connect so that Strimzi automatically builds a new container image with additional connectors. You define the connector plugins using the .spec.build.plugins property of the KafkaConnect custom resource. Strimzi will automatically download and add the connector plugins into a new container image. The container is pushed into the container repository specified in .spec.build.output and automatically used in the Kafka Connect deployment.

Prerequisites

You need to provide your own container registry where images can be pushed to, stored, and pulled from. Strimzi supports private container registries as well as public registries such as Quay or Docker Hub.

Procedure
  1. Configure the KafkaConnect custom resource by specifying the container registry in .spec.build.output, and additional connectors in .spec.build.plugins:

    apiVersion: kafka.strimzi.io/v1beta2
    kind: KafkaConnect
    metadata:
      name: my-connect-cluster
    spec: # (1)
      #...
      build:
        output: # (2)
          type: docker
          image: my-registry.io/my-org/my-connect-cluster:latest
          pushSecret: my-registry-credentials
        plugins: # (3)
          - name: debezium-postgres-connector
            artifacts:
              - type: tgz
                url: https://repo1.maven.org/maven2/io/debezium/debezium-connector-postgres/1.3.1.Final/debezium-connector-postgres-1.3.1.Final-plugin.tar.gz
                sha512sum: 962a12151bdf9a5a30627eebac739955a4fd95a08d373b86bdcea2b4d0c27dd6e1edd5cb548045e115e33a9e69b1b2a352bee24df035a0447cb820077af00c03
          - name: camel-telegram
            artifacts:
              - type: tgz
                url: https://repo.maven.apache.org/maven2/org/apache/camel/kafkaconnector/camel-telegram-kafka-connector/0.7.0/camel-telegram-kafka-connector-0.7.0-package.tar.gz
                sha512sum: a9b1ac63e3284bea7836d7d24d84208c49cdf5600070e6bd1535de654f6920b74ad950d51733e8020bf4187870699819f54ef5859c7846ee4081507f48873479
      #...
    1. The specification for the Kafka Connect cluster.

    2. (Required) Configuration of the container registry where new images are pushed.

    3. (Required) List of connector plugins and their artifacts to add to the new container image. Each plugin must be configured with at least one artifact.

  2. Create or update the resource:

    $ kubectl apply -f KAFKA-CONNECT-CONFIG-FILE
  3. Wait for the new container image to build, and for the Kafka Connect cluster to be deployed.

  4. Use the Kafka Connect REST API or the KafkaConnector custom resources to use the connector plugins you added.

Additional resources

See the Using Strimzi guide for more information on:

Creating a Docker image from the Kafka Connect base image

This procedure shows how to create a custom image and add it to the /opt/kafka/plugins directory.

You can use the Kafka container image on Container Registry as a base image for creating your own custom image with additional connector plug-ins.

At startup, the Strimzi version of Kafka Connect loads any third-party connector plug-ins contained in the /opt/kafka/plugins directory.

Procedure
  1. Create a new Dockerfile using quay.io/strimzi/kafka:latest-kafka-2.8.0 as the base image:

    FROM quay.io/strimzi/kafka:latest-kafka-2.8.0
    USER root:root
    COPY ./my-plugins/ /opt/kafka/plugins/
    USER 1001
    Example plug-in file
    $ tree ./my-plugins/
    ./my-plugins/
    ├── debezium-connector-mongodb
    │   ├── bson-3.4.2.jar
    │   ├── CHANGELOG.md
    │   ├── CONTRIBUTE.md
    │   ├── COPYRIGHT.txt
    │   ├── debezium-connector-mongodb-0.7.1.jar
    │   ├── debezium-core-0.7.1.jar
    │   ├── LICENSE.txt
    │   ├── mongodb-driver-3.4.2.jar
    │   ├── mongodb-driver-core-3.4.2.jar
    │   └── README.md
    ├── debezium-connector-mysql
    │   ├── CHANGELOG.md
    │   ├── CONTRIBUTE.md
    │   ├── COPYRIGHT.txt
    │   ├── debezium-connector-mysql-0.7.1.jar
    │   ├── debezium-core-0.7.1.jar
    │   ├── LICENSE.txt
    │   ├── mysql-binlog-connector-java-0.13.0.jar
    │   ├── mysql-connector-java-5.1.40.jar
    │   ├── README.md
    │   └── wkb-1.0.2.jar
    └── debezium-connector-postgres
        ├── CHANGELOG.md
        ├── CONTRIBUTE.md
        ├── COPYRIGHT.txt
        ├── debezium-connector-postgres-0.7.1.jar
        ├── debezium-core-0.7.1.jar
        ├── LICENSE.txt
        ├── postgresql-42.0.0.jar
        ├── protobuf-java-2.6.1.jar
        └── README.md
  2. Build the container image.

  3. Push your custom image to your container registry.

  4. Point to the new container image.

    You can either:

    • Edit the KafkaConnect.spec.image property of the KafkaConnect custom resource.

      If set, this property overrides the STRIMZI_KAFKA_CONNECT_IMAGES variable in the Cluster Operator.

      apiVersion: kafka.strimzi.io/v1beta2
      kind: KafkaConnect
      metadata:
        name: my-connect-cluster
      spec: (1)
        #...
        image: my-new-container-image (2)
        config: (3)
          #...
      1. The specification for the Kafka Connect cluster.

      2. The docker image for the pods.

      3. Configuration of the Kafka Connect workers (not connectors).

      or

    • In the install/cluster-operator/060-Deployment-strimzi-cluster-operator.yaml file, edit the STRIMZI_KAFKA_CONNECT_IMAGES variable to point to the new container image, and then reinstall the Cluster Operator.

Additional resources

See the Using Strimzi guide for more information on:

4.2.4. Creating and managing connectors

When you have created a container image for your connector plug-in, you need to create a connector instance in your Kafka Connect cluster. You can then configure, monitor, and manage a running connector instance.

A connector is an instance of a particular connector class that knows how to communicate with the relevant external system in terms of messages. Connectors are available for many external systems, or you can create your own.

You can create source and sink types of connector.

Source connector

A source connector is a runtime entity that fetches data from an external system and feeds it to Kafka as messages.

Sink connector

A sink connector is a runtime entity that fetches messages from Kafka topics and feeds them to an external system.

Strimzi provides two APIs for creating and managing connectors:

  • KafkaConnector resources (referred to as KafkaConnectors)

  • Kafka Connect REST API

Using the APIs, you can:

  • Check the status of a connector instance

  • Reconfigure a running connector

  • Increase or decrease the number of connector tasks for a connector instance

  • Restart connectors

  • Restart connector tasks, including failed tasks

  • Pause a connector instance

  • Resume a previously paused connector instance

  • Delete a connector instance

KafkaConnector resources

KafkaConnectors allow you to create and manage connector instances for Kafka Connect in a Kubernetes-native way, so an HTTP client such as cURL is not required. Like other Kafka resources, you declare a connector’s desired state in a KafkaConnector YAML file that is deployed to your Kubernetes cluster to create the connector instance. KafkaConnector resources must be deployed to the same namespace as the Kafka Connect cluster they link to.

You manage a running connector instance by updating its corresponding KafkaConnector resource, and then applying the updates. Annotations are used to manually restart connector instances and connector tasks. You remove a connector by deleting its corresponding KafkaConnector.

To ensure compatibility with earlier versions of Strimzi, KafkaConnectors are disabled by default. To enable them for a Kafka Connect cluster, you must use annotations on the KafkaConnect resource. For instructions, see Configuring Kafka Connect in the Using Strimzi guide.

When KafkaConnectors are enabled, the Cluster Operator begins to watch for them. It updates the configurations of running connector instances to match the configurations defined in their KafkaConnectors.

Strimzi includes an example KafkaConnector, named examples/connect/source-connector.yaml. You can use this example to create and manage a FileStreamSourceConnector and a FileStreamSinkConnector as described in Deploying the example KafkaConnector resources.

Availability of the Kafka Connect REST API

The Kafka Connect REST API is available on port 8083 as the <connect-cluster-name>-connect-api service.

If KafkaConnectors are enabled, manual changes made directly using the Kafka Connect REST API are reverted by the Cluster Operator.

The operations supported by the REST API are described in the Apache Kafka documentation.

4.2.5. Deploying the example KafkaConnector resources

Strimzi includes an example KafkaConnector in examples/connect/source-connector.yaml. This creates a basic FileStreamSourceConnector instance that sends each line of the Kafka license file (an example file source) to a single Kafka topic.

This procedure describes how to create:

  • A FileStreamSourceConnector that reads data from the Kafka license file (the source) and writes the data as messages to a Kafka topic.

  • A FileStreamSinkConnector that reads messages from the Kafka topic and writes the messages to a temporary file (the sink).

Note

In a production environment, you prepare container images containing your desired Kafka Connect connectors, as described in Extending Kafka Connect with connector plug-ins.

The FileStreamSourceConnector and FileStreamSinkConnector are provided as examples. Running these connectors in containers as described here is unlikely to be suitable for production use cases.

Prerequisites
Procedure
  1. Edit the examples/connect/source-connector.yaml file:

    apiVersion: kafka.strimzi.io/v1beta2
    kind: KafkaConnector
    metadata:
      name: my-source-connector (1)
      labels:
        strimzi.io/cluster: my-connect-cluster (2)
    spec:
      class: org.apache.kafka.connect.file.FileStreamSourceConnector (3)
      tasksMax: 2 (4)
      config: (5)
        file: "/opt/kafka/LICENSE" (6)
        topic: my-topic (7)
        # ...
    1. Name of the KafkaConnector resource, which is used as the name of the connector. Use any name that is valid for a Kubernetes resource.

    2. Name of the Kafka Connect cluster to create the connector instance in. Connectors must be deployed to the same namespace as the Kafka Connect cluster they link to.

    3. Full name or alias of the connector class. This should be present in the image being used by the Kafka Connect cluster.

    4. Maximum number of Kafka Connect Tasks that the connector can create.

    5. Connector configuration as key-value pairs.

    6. This example source connector configuration reads data from the /opt/kafka/LICENSE file.

    7. Kafka topic to publish the source data to.

  2. Create the source KafkaConnector in your Kubernetes cluster:

    kubectl apply -f examples/connect/source-connector.yaml
  3. Create an examples/connect/sink-connector.yaml file:

    touch examples/connect/sink-connector.yaml
  4. Paste the following YAML into the sink-connector.yaml file:

    apiVersion: kafka.strimzi.io/v1beta2
    kind: KafkaConnector
    metadata:
      name: my-sink-connector
      labels:
        strimzi.io/cluster: my-connect
    spec:
      class: org.apache.kafka.connect.file.FileStreamSinkConnector (1)
      tasksMax: 2
      config: (2)
        file: "/tmp/my-file" (3)
        topics: my-topic (4)
    1. Full name or alias of the connector class. This should be present in the image being used by the Kafka Connect cluster.

    2. Connector configuration as key-value pairs.

    3. Temporary file to publish the source data to.

    4. Kafka topic to read the source data from.

  5. Create the sink KafkaConnector in your Kubernetes cluster:

    kubectl apply -f examples/connect/sink-connector.yaml
  6. Check that the connector resources were created:

    kubectl get kctr --selector strimzi.io/cluster=MY-CONNECT-CLUSTER -o name
    
    my-source-connector
    my-sink-connector

    Replace MY-CONNECT-CLUSTER with your Kafka Connect cluster.

  7. In the container, execute kafka-console-consumer.sh to read the messages that were written to the topic by the source connector:

    kubectl exec MY-CLUSTER-kafka-0 -i -t -- bin/kafka-console-consumer.sh --bootstrap-server MY-CLUSTER-kafka-bootstrap.NAMESPACE.svc:9092 --topic my-topic --from-beginning
Source and sink connector configuration options

The connector configuration is defined in the spec.config property of the KafkaConnector resource.

The FileStreamSourceConnector and FileStreamSinkConnector classes support the same configuration options as the Kafka Connect REST API. Other connectors support different configuration options.

Table 2. Configuration options for the FileStreamSource connector class
Name Type Default value Description

file

String

Null

Source file to write messages to. If not specified, the standard input is used.

topic

List

Null

The Kafka topic to publish data to.

Table 3. Configuration options for FileStreamSinkConnector class
Name Type Default value Description

file

String

Null

Destination file to write messages to. If not specified, the standard output is used.

topics

List

Null

One or more Kafka topics to read data from.

topics.regex

String

Null

A regular expression matching one or more Kafka topics to read data from.

Additional resources

4.2.6. Performing a restart of a Kafka connector

This procedure describes how to manually trigger a restart of a Kafka connector by using a Kubernetes annotation.

Prerequisites
  • The Cluster Operator is running.

Procedure
  1. Find the name of the KafkaConnector custom resource that controls the Kafka connector you want to restart:

    kubectl get KafkaConnector
  2. To restart the connector, annotate the KafkaConnector resource in Kubernetes. For example, using kubectl annotate:

    kubectl annotate KafkaConnector KAFKACONNECTOR-NAME strimzi.io/restart=true
  3. Wait for the next reconciliation to occur (every two minutes by default).

    The Kafka connector is restarted, as long as the annotation was detected by the reconciliation process. When Kafka Connect accepts the restart request, the annotation is removed from the KafkaConnector custom resource.

Additional resources

4.2.7. Performing a restart of a Kafka connector task

This procedure describes how to manually trigger a restart of a Kafka connector task by using a Kubernetes annotation.

Prerequisites
  • The Cluster Operator is running.

Procedure
  1. Find the name of the KafkaConnector custom resource that controls the Kafka connector task you want to restart:

    kubectl get KafkaConnector
  2. Find the ID of the task to be restarted from the KafkaConnector custom resource. Task IDs are non-negative integers, starting from 0.

    kubectl describe KafkaConnector KAFKACONNECTOR-NAME
  3. To restart the connector task, annotate the KafkaConnector resource in Kubernetes. For example, using kubectl annotate to restart task 0:

    kubectl annotate KafkaConnector KAFKACONNECTOR-NAME strimzi.io/restart-task=0
  4. Wait for the next reconciliation to occur (every two minutes by default).

    The Kafka connector task is restarted, as long as the annotation was detected by the reconciliation process. When Kafka Connect accepts the restart request, the annotation is removed from the KafkaConnector custom resource.

Additional resources

4.3. Deploy Kafka MirrorMaker

The Cluster Operator deploys one or more Kafka MirrorMaker replicas to replicate data between Kafka clusters. This process is called mirroring to avoid confusion with the Kafka partitions replication concept. MirrorMaker consumes messages from the source cluster and republishes those messages to the target cluster.

4.3.1. Deploying Kafka MirrorMaker to your Kubernetes cluster

This procedure shows how to deploy a Kafka MirrorMaker cluster to your Kubernetes cluster using the Cluster Operator.

The deployment uses a YAML file to provide the specification to create a KafkaMirrorMaker or KafkaMirrorMaker2 resource depending on the version of MirrorMaker deployed.

In this procedure, we use the example files provided with Strimzi:

  • examples/mirror-maker/kafka-mirror-maker.yaml

  • examples/mirror-maker/kafka-mirror-maker-2.yaml

For information about configuring KafkaMirrorMaker or KafkaMirrorMaker2 resources, see Kafka MirrorMaker cluster configuration in the Using Strimzi guide.

Procedure
  1. Deploy Kafka MirrorMaker to your Kubernetes cluster:

    For MirrorMaker:

    kubectl apply -f examples/mirror-maker/kafka-mirror-maker.yaml

    For MirrorMaker 2.0:

    kubectl apply -f examples/mirror-maker/kafka-mirror-maker-2.yaml
  2. Verify that MirrorMaker was successfully deployed:

    kubectl get deployments

4.4. Deploy Kafka Bridge

The Cluster Operator deploys one or more Kafka bridge replicas to send data between Kafka clusters and clients via HTTP API.

4.4.1. Deploying Kafka Bridge to your Kubernetes cluster

This procedure shows how to deploy a Kafka Bridge cluster to your Kubernetes cluster using the Cluster Operator.

The deployment uses a YAML file to provide the specification to create a KafkaBridge resource.

In this procedure, we use the example file provided with Strimzi:

  • examples/bridge/kafka-bridge.yaml

For information about configuring the KafkaBridge resource, see Kafka Bridge cluster configuration in the Using Strimzi guide.

Procedure
  1. Deploy Kafka Bridge to your Kubernetes cluster:

    kubectl apply -f examples/bridge/kafka-bridge.yaml
  2. Verify that Kafka Bridge was successfully deployed:

    kubectl get deployments

5. Setting up client access to the Kafka cluster

After you have deployed Strimzi, the procedures in this section explain how to:

  • Deploy example producer and consumer clients, which you can use to verify your deployment

  • Set up external client access to the Kafka cluster

    The steps to set up access to the Kafka cluster for a client outside Kubernetes are more complex, and require familiarity with the Kafka component configuration procedures described in the Using Strimzi guide.

5.1. Deploying example clients

This procedure shows how to deploy example producer and consumer clients that use the Kafka cluster you created to send and receive messages.

Prerequisites
  • The Kafka cluster is available for the clients.

Procedure
  1. Deploy a Kafka producer.

    kubectl run kafka-producer -ti --image=quay.io/strimzi/kafka:latest-kafka-2.8.0 --rm=true --restart=Never -- bin/kafka-console-producer.sh --broker-list cluster-name-kafka-bootstrap:9092 --topic my-topic
  2. Type a message into the console where the producer is running.

  3. Press Enter to send the message.

  4. Deploy a Kafka consumer.

    kubectl run kafka-consumer -ti --image=quay.io/strimzi/kafka:latest-kafka-2.8.0 --rm=true --restart=Never -- bin/kafka-console-consumer.sh --bootstrap-server cluster-name-kafka-bootstrap:9092 --topic my-topic --from-beginning
  5. Confirm that you see the incoming messages in the consumer console.

5.2. Setting up access for clients outside of Kubernetes

This procedure shows how to configure client access to a Kafka cluster from outside Kubernetes.

Using the address of the Kafka cluster, you can provide external access to a client on a different Kubernetes namespace or outside Kubernetes entirely.

You configure an external Kafka listener to provide the access.

The following external listener types are supported:

  • route to use OpenShift Route and the default HAProxy router

  • loadbalancer to use loadbalancer services

  • nodeport to use ports on Kubernetes nodes

  • ingress to use Kubernetes Ingress and the NGINX Ingress Controller for Kubernetes

The type chosen depends on your requirements, and your environment and infrastructure. For example, loadbalancers might not be suitable for certain infrastructure, such as bare metal, where node ports provide a better option.

In this procedure:

  1. An external listener is configured for the Kafka cluster, with TLS encryption and authentication, and Kafka simple authorization is enabled.

  2. A KafkaUser is created for the client, with TLS authentication and Access Control Lists (ACLs) defined for simple authorization.

You can configure your listener to use TLS, SCRAM-SHA-512 or OAuth 2.0 authentication. TLS always uses encryption, but it is recommended to also use encryption with SCRAM-SHA-512 and OAuth 2.0 authentication.

You can configure simple, OAuth 2.0, OPA or custom authorization for Kafka brokers. When enabled, authorization is applied to all enabled listeners.

When you configure the KafkaUser authentication and authorization mechanisms, ensure they match the equivalent Kafka configuration:

  • KafkaUser.spec.authentication matches Kafka.spec.kafka.listeners[*].authentication

  • KafkaUser.spec.authorization matches Kafka.spec.kafka.authorization

You should have at least one listener supporting the authentication you want to use for the KafkaUser.

Note
Authentication between Kafka users and Kafka brokers depends on the authentication settings for each. For example, it is not possible to authenticate a user with TLS if it is not also enabled in the Kafka configuration.

Strimzi operators automate the configuration process:

  • The Cluster Operator creates the listeners and sets up the cluster and client certificate authority (CA) certificates to enable authentication within the Kafka cluster.

  • The User Operator creates the user representing the client and the security credentials used for client authentication, based on the chosen authentication type.

In this procedure, the certificates generated by the Cluster Operator are used, but you can replace them by installing your own certificates. You can also configure your listener to use a Kafka listener certificate managed by an external Certificate Authority.

Certificates are available in PKCS #12 (.p12) and PEM (.crt) formats. This procedure shows PKCS #12 certificates.

Prerequisites
  • The Kafka cluster is available for the client

  • The Cluster Operator and User Operator are running in the cluster

  • A client outside the Kubernetes cluster to connect to the Kafka cluster

Procedure
  1. Configure the Kafka cluster with an external Kafka listener.

    • Define the authentication required to access the Kafka broker through the listener

    • Enable authorization on the Kafka broker

      For example:

      apiVersion: kafka.strimzi.io/v1beta2
      kind: Kafka
      metadata:
        name: my-cluster
        namespace: myproject
      spec:
        kafka:
          # ...
          listeners: (1)
          - name: external (2)
            port: 9094 (3)
            type: LISTENER-TYPE (4)
            tls: true (5)
            authentication:
              type: tls (6)
            configuration:
              preferredNodePortAddressType: InternalDNS (7)
              bootstrap and broker service overrides (8)
              #...
          authorization: (9)
            type: simple
            superUsers:
              - super-user-name (10)
        # ...
      1. Configuration options for enabling external listeners are described in the Generic Kafka listener schema reference.

      2. Name to identify the listener. Must be unique within the Kafka cluster.

      3. Port number used by the listener inside Kafka. The port number has to be unique within a given Kafka cluster. Allowed port numbers are 9092 and higher with the exception of ports 9404 and 9999, which are already used for Prometheus and JMX. Depending on the listener type, the port number might not be the same as the port number that connects Kafka clients.

      4. External listener type specified as route, loadbalancer, nodeport or ingress. An internal listener is specified as internal.

      5. Enables TLS encryption on the listener. Default is false. TLS encryption is not required for route listeners.

      6. Authentication specified as tls.

      7. (Optional, for nodeport listeners only) Configuration to specify a preference for the first address type used by Strimzi as the node address.

      8. (Optional) Strimzi automatically determines the addresses to advertise to clients. The addresses are automatically assigned by Kubernetes. You can override bootstrap and broker service addresses if the infrastructure on which you are running Strimzi does not provide the right address. Validation is not performed on the overrides. The override configuration differs according to the listener type. For example, you can override hosts for route, DNS names or IP addresses for loadbalancer, and node ports for nodeport.

      9. Authorization specified as simple, which uses the AclAuthorizer Kafka plugin.

      10. (Optional) Super users can access all brokers regardless of any access restrictions defined in ACLs.

      Warning
      An OpenShift Route address comprises the name of the Kafka cluster, the name of the listener, and the name of the namespace it is created in. For example, my-cluster-kafka-listener1-bootstrap-myproject (CLUSTER-NAME-kafka-LISTENER-NAME-bootstrap-NAMESPACE). If you are using a route listener type, be careful that the whole length of the address does not exceed a maximum limit of 63 characters.
  2. Create or update the Kafka resource.

    kubectl apply -f KAFKA-CONFIG-FILE

    The Kafka cluster is configured with a Kafka broker listener using TLS authentication.

    A service is created for each Kafka broker pod.

    A service is created to serve as the bootstrap address for connection to the Kafka cluster.

    A service is also created as the external bootstrap address for external connection to the Kafka cluster using nodeport listeners.

    The cluster CA certificate to verify the identity of the kafka brokers is also created with the same name as the Kafka resource.

  3. Find the bootstrap address and port from the status of the Kafka resource.

    kubectl get kafka KAFKA-CLUSTER-NAME -o jsonpath='{.status.listeners[?(@.type=="external")].bootstrapServers}'

    Use the bootstrap address in your Kafka client to connect to the Kafka cluster.

  4. Create or modify a user representing the client that requires access to the Kafka cluster.

    • Specify the same authentication type as the Kafka listener.

    • Specify the authorization ACLs for simple authorization.

      For example:

      apiVersion: kafka.strimzi.io/v1beta2
      kind: KafkaUser
      metadata:
        name: my-user
        labels:
          strimzi.io/cluster: my-cluster (1)
      spec:
        authentication:
          type: tls (2)
        authorization:
          type: simple
          acls: (3)
            - resource:
                type: topic
                name: my-topic
                patternType: literal
              operation: Read
            - resource:
                type: topic
                name: my-topic
                patternType: literal
              operation: Describe
            - resource:
                type: group
                name: my-group
                patternType: literal
              operation: Read
      1. The label must match the label of the Kafka cluster for the user to be created.

      2. Authentication specified as tls.

      3. Simple authorization requires an accompanying list of ACL rules to apply to the user. The rules define the operations allowed on Kafka resources based on the username (my-user).

  5. Create or modify the KafkaUser resource.

    kubectl apply -f USER-CONFIG-FILE

    The user is created, as well as a Secret with the same name as the KafkaUser resource. The Secret contains a private and public key for TLS client authentication.

    For example:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Secret
    metadata:
      name: my-user
      labels:
        strimzi.io/kind: KafkaUser
        strimzi.io/cluster: my-cluster
    type: Opaque
    data:
      ca.crt: PUBLIC-KEY-OF-THE-CLIENT-CA
      user.crt: USER-CERTIFICATE-CONTAINING-PUBLIC-KEY-OF-USER
      user.key: PRIVATE-KEY-OF-USER
      user.p12: P12-ARCHIVE-FILE-STORING-CERTIFICATES-AND-KEYS
      user.password: PASSWORD-PROTECTING-P12-ARCHIVE
  6. Extract the public cluster CA certificate to the desired certificate format:

    kubectl get secret KAFKA-CLUSTER-NAME-cluster-ca-cert -o jsonpath='{.data.ca\.p12}' | base64 -d > ca.p12
  7. Extract the password from the password file:

    kubectl get secret KAFKA-CLUSTER-NAME-cluster-ca-cert -o jsonpath='{.data.ca\.password}' | base64 -d > ca.password
  8. Configure your client with the authentication details for the public cluster certificates:

    Sample client code
    properties.put("security.protocol","SSL"); (1)
    properties.put(SslConfigs.SSL_TRUSTSTORE_LOCATION_CONFIG,"/path/to/ca.p12"); (2)
    properties.put(SslConfigs.SSL_TRUSTSTORE_PASSWORD_CONFIG,CA-PASSWORD); (3)
    properties.put(SslConfigs.SSL_TRUSTSTORE_TYPE_CONFIG,"PKCS12"); (4)
    1. Enables TLS encryption (with or without TLS client authentication).

    2. Specifies the truststore location where the certificates were imported.

    3. Specifies the password for accessing the truststore. This property can be omitted if it is not needed by the truststore.

    4. Identifies the truststore type.

    Note
    Use security.protocol: SASL_SSL when using SCRAM-SHA authentication over TLS.
  9. Extract the user CA certificate from the user Secret to the desired certificate format:

    kubectl get secret USER-NAME -o jsonpath='{.data.user\.p12}' | base64 -d > user.p12
  10. Extract the password from the password file:

    kubectl get secret USER-NAME -o jsonpath='{.data.user\.password}' | base64 -d > user.password
  11. Configure your client with the authentication details for the user CA certificate:

    Sample client code
    properties.put(SslConfigs.SSL_KEYSTORE_LOCATION_CONFIG,"/path/to/user.p12"); (1)
    properties.put(SslConfigs.SSL_KEYSTORE_PASSWORD_CONFIG,"<user.password>"); (2)
    properties.put(SslConfigs.SSL_KEYSTORE_TYPE_CONFIG,"PKCS12"); (3)
    1. Specifies the keystore location where the certificates were imported.

    2. Specifies the password for accessing the keystore. This property can be omitted if it is not needed by the keystore. The public user certificate is signed by the client CA when it is created.

    3. Identifies the keystore type.

  12. Add the bootstrap address and port for connecting to the Kafka cluster:

    bootstrap.servers: BOOTSTRAP-ADDRESS:PORT
Additional resources

6. Introducing Metrics to Kafka

This section describes how to monitor your Strimzi deployment.

Depending on your requirements, you can:

With Prometheus and Grafana set up, you can use the example Grafana dashboards provided by Strimzi for monitoring.

Additionally, you can configure your deployment to track messages end-to-end by setting up distributed tracing, as described in the Using Strimzi guide.

Additional resources

6.1. Example metrics files

You can find example Grafana dashboards and other metrics configuration files in the examples/metrics directory.

Example metrics files provided with Strimzi
metrics
├── grafana-dashboards (1)
│   ├── strimzi-cruise-control.json
│   ├── strimzi-kafka-bridge.json
│   ├── strimzi-kafka-connect.json
│   ├── strimzi-kafka-exporter.json
│   ├── strimzi-kafka-mirror-maker-2.json
│   ├── strimzi-kafka.json
│   ├── strimzi-operators.json
│   └── strimzi-zookeeper.json
├── grafana-install
│   └── grafana.yaml (2)
├── prometheus-additional-properties
│   └── prometheus-additional.yaml (3)
├── prometheus-alertmanager-config
│   └── alert-manager-config.yaml (4)
├── prometheus-install
│    ├── alert-manager.yaml (5)
│    ├── prometheus-rules.yaml (6)
│    ├── prometheus.yaml (7)
│    ├── strimzi-pod-monitor.yaml (8)
├── kafka-bridge-metrics.yaml (9)
├── kafka-connect-metrics.yaml (10)
├── kafka-cruise-control-metrics.yaml (11)
├── kafka-metrics.yaml (12)
└── kafka-mirror-maker-2-metrics.yaml (13)
  1. Example Grafana dashboards for the different Strimzi components.

  2. Installation file for the Grafana image.

  3. Additional configuration to scrape metrics for CPU, memory and disk volume usage, which comes directly from the Kubernetes cAdvisor agent and kubelet on the nodes.

  4. Hook definitions for sending notifications through Alertmanager.

  5. Resources for deploying and configuring Alertmanager.

  6. Alerting rules examples for use with Prometheus Alertmanager (deployed with Prometheus).

  7. Installation resource file for the Prometheus image.

  8. PodMonitor definitions translated by the Prometheus Operator into jobs for the Prometheus server to be able to scrape metrics data directly from pods.

  9. Kafka Bridge resource with metrics enabled.

  10. Metrics configuration that defines Prometheus JMX Exporter relabeling rules for Kafka Connect.

  11. Metrics configuration that defines Prometheus JMX Exporter relabeling rules for Cruise Control.

  12. Metrics configuration that defines Prometheus JMX Exporter relabeling rules for Kafka and ZooKeeper.

  13. Metrics configuration that defines Prometheus JMX Exporter relabeling rules for Kafka Mirror Maker 2.0.

6.1.1. Example Grafana dashboards

Example Grafana dashboards are provided for monitoring:

All dashboards provide JVM metrics, as well as metrics specific to the component. For example, the Grafana dashboard for Strimzi Operators provides information on the number of reconciliations or custom resources they are processing.

6.1.2. Example Prometheus metrics configuration

Strimzi uses the Prometheus JMX Exporter to expose JMX metrics using an HTTP endpoint, which is then scraped by the Prometheus server.

Grafana dashboards are dependent on Prometheus JMX Exporter relabeling rules, which are defined for Strimzi components as custom resource configuration.

A label is a name-value pair. Relabeling is the process of writing a label dynamically. For example, the value of a label may be derived from the name of a Kafka server and client ID.

Strimzi provides example custom resource configuration YAML files with relabeling rules. When deploying Prometheus metrics configuration, you can can deploy the example custom resource or copy the metrics configuration to your own custom resource definition.

Table 4. Example custom resources with metrics configuration
Component Custom resource Example YAML file

Kafka and ZooKeeper

Kafka

kafka-metrics.yaml

Kafka Connect

KafkaConnect

kafka-connect-metrics.yaml

Kafka MirrorMaker 2.0

KafkaMirrorMaker2

kafka-mirror-maker-2-metrics.yaml

Kafka Bridge

KafkaBridge

kafka-bridge-metrics.yaml

Cruise Control

Kafka

kafka-cruise-control-metrics.yaml

Additional resources

For more information on the use of relabeling, see Configuration in the Prometheus documentation.

6.2. Add Prometheus and Grafana

You can use Prometheus to provide monitoring data for the example Grafana dashboards provided with Strimzi.

In order to run the example Grafana dashboards, you must:

Note
The resources referenced in this section are intended as a starting point for setting up monitoring, but they are provided as examples only. If you require further support on configuring and running Prometheus or Grafana in production, try reaching out to their respective communities.

6.2.1. Deploying Prometheus metrics configuration

Strimzi provides example custom resource configuration YAML files with relabeling rules.

To apply metrics configuration of relabeling rules, do one of the following:

Copying Prometheus metrics configuration to a custom resource

To use Grafana dashboards for monitoring, copy the example metrics configuration to a custom resource.

In this procedure, the Kafka resource is updated, but the procedure is the same for all components that support monitoring.

Procedure

Perform the following steps for each Kafka resource in your deployment.

  1. Update the Kafka resource in an editor.

    kubectl edit kafka KAFKA-CONFIG-FILE
  2. Copy the example configuration in kafka-metrics.yaml to your own Kafka resource definition.

  3. Save the file, and wait for the updated resource to be reconciled.

Deploying a Kafka cluster with Prometheus metrics configuration

To use Grafana dashboards for monitoring, you can deploy an example Kafka cluster with metrics configuration.

In this procedure, The kafka-metrics.yaml file is used for the Kafka resource.

Procedure

6.2.2. Setting up Prometheus

Prometheus provides an open source set of components for systems monitoring and alert notification.

We describe here how you can use the CoreOS Prometheus Operator to run and manage a Prometheus server that is suitable for use in production environments, but with the correct configuration you can run any Prometheus server.

Note

The Prometheus server configuration uses service discovery to discover the pods in the cluster from which it gets metrics. For this feature to work correctly, the service account used for running the Prometheus service pod must have access to the API server so it can retrieve the pod list.

For more information, see Discovering services.

Prometheus configuration

A Prometheus image is provided for deployment:

  • prometheus.yaml

Additional Prometheus-related configuration is also provided in the following files:

  • prometheus-additional.yaml

  • prometheus-rules.yaml

  • strimzi-pod-monitor.yaml

For Prometheus to obtain monitoring data:

Then use the configuration files to:

Alerting rules

The prometheus-rules.yaml file provides example alerting rule examples for use with Alertmanager.

Prometheus resources

When you apply the Prometheus configuration, the following resources are created in your Kubernetes cluster and managed by the Prometheus Operator:

  • A ClusterRole that grants permissions to Prometheus to read the health endpoints exposed by the Kafka and ZooKeeper pods, cAdvisor and the kubelet for container metrics.

  • A ServiceAccount for the Prometheus pods to run under.

  • A ClusterRoleBinding which binds the ClusterRole to the ServiceAccount.

  • A Deployment to manage the Prometheus Operator pod.

  • A PodMonitor to manage the configuration of the Prometheus pod.

  • A Prometheus to manage the configuration of the Prometheus pod.

  • A PrometheusRule to manage alerting rules for the Prometheus pod.

  • A Secret to manage additional Prometheus settings.

  • A Service to allow applications running in the cluster to connect to Prometheus (for example, Grafana using Prometheus as datasource).

Deploying the CoreOS Prometheus Operator

To deploy the Prometheus Operator to your Kafka cluster, apply the YAML bundle resources file from the Prometheus CoreOS repository.

Procedure
  1. Download the bundle.yaml resources file from the repository.

    On Linux, use:

    curl -s https://raw.githubusercontent.com/coreos/prometheus-operator/master/bundle.yaml | sed -e '/[[:space:]]*namespace: [a-zA-Z0-9-]*$/s/namespace:[[:space:]]*[a-zA-Z0-9-]*$/namespace: my-namespace/' > prometheus-operator-deployment.yaml

    On MacOS, use:

    curl -s https://raw.githubusercontent.com/coreos/prometheus-operator/master/bundle.yaml | sed -e '' '/[[:space:]]*namespace: [a-zA-Z0-9-]*$/s/namespace:[[:space:]]*[a-zA-Z0-9-]*$/namespace: my-namespace/' > prometheus-operator-deployment.yaml
    • Replace the example namespace with your own.

    • Use the latest master release as shown, or choose a release that is compatible with your version of Kubernetes (see the Kubernetes compatibility matrix). The master release of the Prometheus Operator works with Kubernetes 1.18+.

      Note
      If using OpenShift, specify a release of the OpenShift fork of the Prometheus Operator repository.
  2. (Optional) If it is not required, you can manually remove the spec.template.spec.securityContext property from the prometheus-operator-deployment.yaml file.

  3. Deploy the Prometheus Operator:

    kubectl apply -f prometheus-operator-deployment.yaml
Deploying Prometheus

To obtain monitoring data in your Kafka cluster, you can use your own Prometheus deployment or deploy Prometheus by applying the example installation resource file for the Prometheus docker image and the YAML files for Prometheus-related resources.

The deployment process creates a ClusterRoleBinding and discovers an Alertmanager instance in the namespace specified for the deployment.

Note
By default, the Prometheus Operator only supports jobs that include an endpoints role for service discovery. Targets are discovered and scraped for each endpoint port address. For endpoint discovery, the port address may be derived from service (role: service) or pod (role: pod) discovery.
Prerequisites
Procedure
  1. Modify the Prometheus installation file (prometheus.yaml) according to the namespace Prometheus is going to be installed into:

    On Linux, use:

    sed -i 's/namespace: .*/namespace: my-namespace/' prometheus.yaml

    On MacOS, use:

    sed -i '' 's/namespace: .*/namespace: my-namespace/' prometheus.yaml
  2. Edit the PodMonitor resource in strimzi-pod-monitor.yaml to define Prometheus jobs that will scrape the metrics data from pods.

    Update the namespaceSelector.matchNames property with the namespace where the pods to scrape the metrics from are running.

    PodMonitor is used to scrape data directly from pods for Apache Kafka, ZooKeeper, Operators, the Kafka Bridge and Cruise Control.

  3. Edit the prometheus.yaml installation file to include additional configuration for scraping metrics directly from nodes.

    The Grafana dashboards provided show metrics for CPU, memory and disk volume usage, which come directly from the Kubernetes cAdvisor agent and kubelet on the nodes.

    The Prometheus Operator does not have a monitoring resource like PodMonitor for scraping the nodes, so the prometheus-additional.yaml file contains the additional configuration needed.

    1. Create a Secret resource from the configuration file (prometheus-additional.yaml in the examples/metrics/prometheus-additional-properties directory):

      kubectl apply -f prometheus-additional.yaml
    2. Edit the additionalScrapeConfigs property in the prometheus.yaml file to include the name of the Secret and the prometheus-additional.yaml file.

  4. Deploy the Prometheus resources:

    kubectl apply -f strimzi-pod-monitor.yaml
    kubectl apply -f prometheus-rules.yaml
    kubectl apply -f prometheus.yaml

6.2.3. Setting up Prometheus Alertmanager

Prometheus Alertmanager is a plugin for handling alerts and routing them to a notification service. Alertmanager supports an essential aspect of monitoring, which is to be notified of conditions that indicate potential issues based on alerting rules.

Alertmanager configuration

A configuration file defines the resources for deploying Alertmanager:

  • alert-manager.yaml

An additional configuration file provides the hook definitions for sending notifications from your Kafka cluster.

  • alert-manager-config.yaml

For Alertmanger to handle Prometheus alerts, use the configuration files to:

Alerting rules

Alerting rules provide notifications about specific conditions observed in the metrics. Rules are declared on the Prometheus server, but Prometheus Alertmanager is responsible for alert notifications.

Prometheus alerting rules describe conditions using PromQL expressions that are continuously evaluated.

When an alert expression becomes true, the condition is met and the Prometheus server sends alert data to the Alertmanager. Alertmanager then sends out a notification using the communication method configured for its deployment.

Alertmanager can be configured to use email, chat messages or other notification methods.

Additional resources

For more information about setting up alerting rules, see Configuration in the Prometheus documentation.

Alerting rule examples

Example alerting rules for Kafka and ZooKeeper metrics are provided with Strimzi for use in a Prometheus deployment.

General points about the alerting rule definitions:

  • A for property is used with the rules to determine the period of time a condition must persist before an alert is triggered.

  • A tick is a basic ZooKeeper time unit, which is measured in milliseconds and configured using the tickTime parameter of Kafka.spec.zookeeper.config. For example, if ZooKeeper tickTime=3000, 3 ticks (3 x 3000) equals 9000 milliseconds.

  • The availability of the ZookeeperRunningOutOfSpace metric and alert is dependent on the Kubernetes configuration and storage implementation used. Storage implementations for certain platforms may not be able to supply the information on available space required for the metric to provide an alert.

Kafka alerting rules
UnderReplicatedPartitions

Gives the number of partitions for which the current broker is the lead replica but which have fewer replicas than the min.insync.replicas configured for their topic. This metric provides insights about brokers that host the follower replicas. Those followers are not keeping up with the leader. Reasons for this could include being (or having been) offline, and over-throttled interbroker replication. An alert is raised when this value is greater than zero, providing information on the under-replicated partitions for each broker.

AbnormalControllerState

Indicates whether the current broker is the controller for the cluster. The metric can be 0 or 1. During the life of a cluster, only one broker should be the controller and the cluster always needs to have an active controller. Having two or more brokers saying that they are controllers indicates a problem. If the condition persists, an alert is raised when the sum of all the values for this metric on all brokers is not equal to 1, meaning that there is no active controller (the sum is 0) or more than one controller (the sum is greater than 1).

UnderMinIsrPartitionCount

Indicates that the minimum number of in-sync replicas (ISRs) for a lead Kafka broker, specified using min.insync.replicas, that must acknowledge a write operation has not been reached. The metric defines the number of partitions that the broker leads for which the in-sync replicas count is less than the minimum in-sync. An alert is raised when this value is greater than zero, providing information on the partition count for each broker that did not achieve the minimum number of acknowledgments.

OfflineLogDirectoryCount

Indicates the number of log directories which are offline (for example, due to a hardware failure) so that the broker cannot store incoming messages anymore. An alert is raised when this value is greater than zero, providing information on the number of offline log directories for each broker.

KafkaRunningOutOfSpace

Indicates the remaining amount of disk space that can be used for writing data. An alert is raised when this value is lower than 5GiB, providing information on the disk that is running out of space for each persistent volume claim. The threshold value may be changed in prometheus-rules.yaml.

ZooKeeper alerting rules
AvgRequestLatency

Indicates the amount of time it takes for the server to respond to a client request. An alert is raised when this value is greater than 10 (ticks), providing the actual value of the average request latency for each server.

OutstandingRequests

Indicates the number of queued requests in the server. This value goes up when the server receives more requests than it can process. An alert is raised when this value is greater than 10, providing the actual number of outstanding requests for each server.

ZookeeperRunningOutOfSpace

Indicates the remaining amount of disk space that can be used for writing data to ZooKeeper. An alert is raised when this value is lower than 5GiB., providing information on the disk that is running out of space for each persistent volume claim.

Deploying Alertmanager

To deploy Alertmanager, apply the example configuration files.

The sample configuration provided with Strimzi configures the Alertmanager to send notifications to a Slack channel.

The following resources are defined on deployment:

  • An Alertmanager to manage the Alertmanager pod.

  • A Secret to manage the configuration of the Alertmanager.

  • A Service to provide an easy to reference hostname for other services to connect to Alertmanager (such as Prometheus).

Procedure
  1. Create a Secret resource from the Alertmanager configuration file (alert-manager-config.yaml in the examples/metrics/prometheus-alertmanager-config directory):

    kubectl apply -f alert-manager-config.yaml
  2. Update the alert-manager-config.yaml file to replace the:

    • slack_api_url property with the actual value of the Slack API URL related to the application for the Slack workspace

    • channel property with the actual Slack channel on which to send notifications

  3. Deploy Alertmanager:

    kubectl apply -f alert-manager.yaml

6.2.4. Setting up Grafana

Grafana provides visualizations of Prometheus metrics.

You can deploy and enable the example Grafana dashboards provided with Strimzi.

Deploying Grafana

To provide visualizations of Prometheus metrics, you can use your own Grafana installation or deploy Grafana by applying the grafana.yaml file provided in the examples/metrics directory.

Procedure
  1. Deploy Grafana:

    kubectl apply -f grafana.yaml
  2. Enable the Grafana dashboards.

Enabling the example Grafana dashboards

Strimzi provides example dashboard configuration files for Grafana. Example dashboards are provided in the examples/metrics/grafana-dashboards directory as JSON files:

  • strimzi-kafka.json

  • strimzi-zookeeper.json

  • strimzi-operators.json

  • strimzi-kafka-connect.json

  • strimzi-kafka-mirror-maker-2.json

  • strimzi-kafka-bridge.json

  • strimzi-cruise-control.json

  • strimzi-kafka-exporter.json

The example dashboards are a good starting point for monitoring key metrics, but they do not represent all available metrics. You can modify the example dashboards or add other metrics, depending on your infrastructure.

After setting up Prometheus and Grafana, you can visualize the Strimzi data on the Grafana dashboards.

Note
No alert notification rules are defined.

When accessing a dashboard, you can use the port-forward command to forward traffic from the Grafana pod to the host.

Note
The name of the Grafana pod is different for each user.
Procedure
  1. Get the details of the Grafana service:

    kubectl get service grafana

    For example:

    NAME TYPE CLUSTER-IP PORT(S)

    grafana

    ClusterIP

    172.30.123.40

    3000/TCP

    Note the port number for port forwarding.

  2. Use port-forward to redirect the Grafana user interface to localhost:3000:

    kubectl port-forward svc/grafana 3000:3000
  3. Point a web browser to http://localhost:3000.

    The Grafana Log In page appears.

  4. Enter your user name and password, and then click Log In.

    The default Grafana user name and password are both admin. After logging in for the first time, you can change the password.

  5. Add Prometheus as a data source.

    • Specify a name

    • Add Prometheus as the type

    • Specify a Prometheus server URL (http://prometheus-operated:9090)

      Save and test the connection when you have added the details.

      Add Prometheus data source
  6. From Dashboards  Import, upload the example dashboards or paste the JSON directly.

  7. On the top header, click the dashboard drop-down menu, and then select the dashboard you want to view.

    When the Prometheus server has been collecting metrics for a Strimzi cluster for some time, the dashboards are populated.

Strimzi dashboard selection
Figure 1. Dashboard selection options
Strimzi Kafka

Shows metrics for:

  • Brokers online count

  • Active controllers in the cluster count

  • Unclean leader election rate

  • Replicas that are online

  • Under-replicated partitions count

  • Partitions which are at their minimum in sync replica count

  • Partitions which are under their minimum in sync replica count

  • Partitions that do not have an active leader and are hence not writable or readable

  • Kafka broker pods memory usage

  • Aggregated Kafka broker pods CPU usage

  • Kafka broker pods disk usage

  • JVM memory used

  • JVM garbage collection time

  • JVM garbage collection count

  • Total incoming byte rate

  • Total outgoing byte rate

  • Incoming messages rate

  • Total produce request rate

  • Byte rate

  • Produce request rate

  • Fetch request rate

  • Network processor average time idle percentage

  • Request handler average time idle percentage

  • Log size

    Kafka dashboard
    Figure 2. Strimzi Kafka dashboard
Strimzi ZooKeeper

Shows metrics for:

  • Quorum Size of Zookeeper ensemble

  • Number of alive connections

  • Queued requests in the server count

  • Watchers count

  • ZooKeeper pods memory usage

  • Aggregated ZooKeeper pods CPU usage

  • ZooKeeper pods disk usage

  • JVM memory used

  • JVM garbage collection time

  • JVM garbage collection count

  • Amount of time it takes for the server to respond to a client request (maximum, minimum and average)

Strimzi Operators

Shows metrics for:

  • Custom resources

  • Successful custom resource reconciliations per hour

  • Failed custom resource reconciliations per hour

  • Reconciliations without locks per hour

  • Reconciliations started hour

  • Periodical reconciliations per hour

  • Maximum reconciliation time

  • Average reconciliation time

  • JVM memory used

  • JVM garbage collection time

  • JVM garbage collection count

Strimzi Kafka Connect

Shows metrics for:

  • Total incoming byte rate

  • Total outgoing byte rate

  • Disk usage

  • JVM memory used

  • JVM garbage collection time

Strimzi Kafka MirrorMaker 2

Shows metrics for:

  • Number of connectors

  • Number of tasks

  • Total incoming byte rate

  • Total outgoing byte rate

  • Disk usage

  • JVM memory used

  • JVM garbage collection time

Strimzi Kafka Bridge

See Monitor Kafka Bridge.

Strimzi Cruise Control

See Monitor Cruise Control.

Strimzi Kafka Exporter

See Enabling the Kafka Exporter Grafana dashboard.

6.2.5. Using metrics with Minikube

When adding Prometheus and Grafana servers to an Apache Kafka deployment using Minikube, the memory available to the virtual machine should be increased (to 4 GB of RAM, for example, instead of the default 2 GB).

For information on how to increase the default amount of memory, see Installing a local Kubernetes cluster with Minikube

Additional resources

6.3. Add Kafka Exporter

Kafka Exporter is an open source project to enhance monitoring of Apache Kafka brokers and clients. Kafka Exporter is provided with Strimzi for deployment with a Kafka cluster to extract additional metrics data from Kafka brokers related to offsets, consumer groups, consumer lag, and topics.

The metrics data is used, for example, to help identify slow consumers.

Lag data is exposed as Prometheus metrics, which can then be presented in Grafana for analysis.

If you are already using Prometheus and Grafana for monitoring of built-in Kafka metrics, you can configure Prometheus to also scrape the Kafka Exporter Prometheus endpoint.

Strimzi includes an example Kafka Exporter dashboard in examples/metrics/grafana-dashboards/strimzi-kafka-exporter.json.

6.3.1. Monitoring Consumer lag

Consumer lag indicates the difference in the rate of production and consumption of messages. Specifically, consumer lag for a given consumer group indicates the delay between the last message in the partition and the message being currently picked up by that consumer.

The lag reflects the position of the consumer offset in relation to the end of the partition log.

Consumer lag between the producer and consumer offset

Consumer lag

This difference is sometimes referred to as the delta between the producer offset and consumer offset: the read and write positions in the Kafka broker topic partitions.

Suppose a topic streams 100 messages a second. A lag of 1000 messages between the producer offset (the topic partition head) and the last offset the consumer has read means a 10-second delay.

The importance of monitoring consumer lag

For applications that rely on the processing of (near) real-time data, it is critical to monitor consumer lag to check that it does not become too big. The greater the lag becomes, the further the process moves from the real-time processing objective.

Consumer lag, for example, might be a result of consuming too much old data that has not been purged, or through unplanned shutdowns.

Reducing consumer lag

Typical actions to reduce lag include:

  • Scaling-up consumer groups by adding new consumers

  • Increasing the retention time for a message to remain in a topic

  • Adding more disk capacity to increase the message buffer

Actions to reduce consumer lag depend on the underlying infrastructure and the use cases Strimzi is supporting. For instance, a lagging consumer is less likely to benefit from the broker being able to service a fetch request from its disk cache. And in certain cases, it might be acceptable to automatically drop messages until a consumer has caught up.

6.3.2. Example Kafka Exporter alerting rules

If you performed the steps to introduce metrics to your deployment, you will already have your Kafka cluster configured to use the alert notification rules that support Kafka Exporter.

The rules for Kafka Exporter are defined in prometheus-rules.yaml, and are deployed with Prometheus. For more information, see Prometheus.

The sample alert notification rules specific to Kafka Exporter are as follows:

UnderReplicatedPartition

An alert to warn that a topic is under-replicated and the broker is not replicating to enough partitions. The default configuration is for an alert if there are one or more under-replicated partitions for a topic. The alert might signify that a Kafka instance is down or the Kafka cluster is overloaded. A planned restart of the Kafka broker may be required to restart the replication process.

TooLargeConsumerGroupLag

An alert to warn that the lag on a consumer group is too large for a specific topic partition. The default configuration is 1000 records. A large lag might indicate that consumers are too slow and are falling behind the producers.

NoMessageForTooLong

An alert to warn that a topic has not received messages for a period of time. The default configuration for the time period is 10 minutes. The delay might be a result of a configuration issue preventing a producer from publishing messages to the topic.

Adapt the default configuration of these rules according to your specific needs.

6.3.3. Exposing Kafka Exporter metrics

Lag information is exposed by Kafka Exporter as Prometheus metrics for presentation in Grafana.

Kafka Exporter exposes metrics data for brokers, topics and consumer groups. These metrics are displayed on the example strimzi-kafka-exporter dashboard.

The data extracted is described here.

Table 5. Broker metrics output
Name Information

kafka_brokers

Number of brokers in the Kafka cluster

Table 6. Topic metrics output
Name Information

kafka_topic_partitions

Number of partitions for a topic

kafka_topic_partition_current_offset

Current topic partition offset for a broker

kafka_topic_partition_oldest_offset

Oldest topic partition offset for a broker

kafka_topic_partition_in_sync_replica

Number of in-sync replicas for a topic partition

kafka_topic_partition_leader

Leader broker ID of a topic partition

kafka_topic_partition_leader_is_preferred

Shows 1 if a topic partition is using the preferred broker

kafka_topic_partition_replicas

Number of replicas for this topic partition

kafka_topic_partition_under_replicated_partition

Shows 1 if a topic partition is under-replicated

Table 7. Consumer group metrics output
Name Information

kafka_consumergroup_current_offset

Current topic partition offset for a consumer group

kafka_consumergroup_lag

Current approximate lag for a consumer group at a topic partition

Consumer group metrics are only displayed on the Kafka Exporter dashboard if at least one consumer group has a lag greater than zero.

6.3.4. Configuring Kafka Exporter

This procedure shows how to configure Kafka Exporter in the Kafka resource through KafkaExporter properties.

For more information about configuring the Kafka resource, see Kafka cluster configuration in the Using Strimzi guide.

The properties relevant to the Kafka Exporter configuration are shown in this procedure.

You can configure these properties as part of a deployment or redeployment of the Kafka cluster.

Prerequisites
  • A Kubernetes cluster

  • A running Cluster Operator

Procedure
  1. Edit the KafkaExporter properties for the Kafka resource.

    The properties you can configure are shown in this example configuration:

    apiVersion: kafka.strimzi.io/v1beta2
    kind: Kafka
    metadata:
      name: my-cluster
    spec:
      # ...
      kafkaExporter:
        image: my-registry.io/my-org/my-exporter-cluster:latest (1)
        groupRegex: ".*" (2)
        topicRegex: ".*" (3)
        resources: (4)
          requests:
            cpu: 200m
            memory: 64Mi
          limits:
            cpu: 500m
            memory: 128Mi
        logging: debug (5)
        enableSaramaLogging: true (6)
        template: (7)
          pod:
            metadata:
              labels:
                label1: value1
            imagePullSecrets:
              - name: my-docker-credentials
            securityContext:
              runAsUser: 1000001
              fsGroup: 0
            terminationGracePeriodSeconds: 120
        readinessProbe: (8)
          initialDelaySeconds: 15
          timeoutSeconds: 5
        livenessProbe: (9)
          initialDelaySeconds: 15
          timeoutSeconds: 5
    # ...
    1. ADVANCED OPTION: Container image configuration, which is recommended only in special situations.

    2. A regular expression to specify the consumer groups to include in the metrics.

    3. A regular expression to specify the topics to include in the metrics.

    4. CPU and memory resources to reserve.

    5. Logging configuration, to log messages with a given severity (debug, info, warn, error, fatal) or above.

    6. Boolean to enable Sarama logging, a Go client library used by Kafka Exporter.

    7. Customization of deployment templates and pods.

    8. Healthcheck readiness probes.

    9. Healthcheck liveness probes.

  2. Create or update the resource:

    kubectl apply -f kafka.yaml
What to do next

After configuring and deploying Kafka Exporter, you can enable Grafana to present the Kafka Exporter dashboards.

6.3.5. Enabling the Kafka Exporter Grafana dashboard

Strimzi provides example dashboard configuration files for Grafana. The Kafka Exporter dashboard is provided in the examples/metrics directory as a JSON file:

  • strimzi-kafka-exporter.json

If you deployed Kafka Exporter with your Kafka cluster, you can visualize the metrics data it exposes on the Grafana dashboard.

This procedure assumes you already have access to the Grafana user interface and Prometheus has been added as a data source. If you are accessing the user interface for the first time, see Grafana.

Procedure
  1. Access the Grafana user interface.

  2. Select the Strimzi Kafka Exporter dashboard.

    When metrics data has been collected for some time, the Kafka Exporter charts are populated.

    Strimzi Kafka Exporter

    Shows metrics for:

    • Topic count

    • Partition count

    • Replicas count

    • In-sync replicas count

    • Under-replicated partitions count

    • Partitions which are at their minimum in sync replica count

    • Partitions which are under their minimum in sync replica count

    • Partitions not on a preferred node

    • Messages in per second from topics

    • Messages consumed per second from topics

    • Messages consumed per minute by consumer groups

    • Lag by consumer group

    • Number of partitions

    • Latest offsets

    • Oldest offsets

Use the Grafana charts to analyze lag and to check if actions to reduce lag are having an impact on an affected consumer group. If, for example, Kafka brokers are adjusted to reduce lag, the dashboard will show the Lag by consumer group chart going down and the Messages consumed per minute chart going up.

6.4. Monitor Kafka Bridge

If you are already using Prometheus and Grafana for monitoring of built-in Kafka metrics, you can configure Prometheus to also scrape the Kafka Bridge Prometheus endpoint.

The example Grafana dashboard for the Kafka Bridge provides:

  • Information about HTTP connections and related requests to the different endpoints

  • Information about the Kafka consumers and producers used by the bridge

  • JVM metrics from the bridge itself

6.4.1. Configuring Kafka Bridge

You can enable the Kafka Bridge metrics in the KafkaBridge resource using the enableMetrics property.

You can configure this property as part of a deployment or redeployment of the Kafka Bridge.

For example:

apiVersion: kafka.strimzi.io/v1beta2
kind: KafkaBridge
metadata:
  name: my-bridge
spec:
  # ...
  bootstrapServers: my-cluster-kafka:9092
  http:
    # ...
  enableMetrics: true
  # ...

6.4.2. Enabling the Kafka Bridge Grafana dashboard

If you deployed Kafka Bridge with your Kafka cluster, you can enable Grafana to present the metrics data it exposes.

A Kafka Bridge dashboard is provided in the examples/metrics directory as a JSON file:

  • strimzi-kafka-bridge.json

When metrics data has been collected for some time, the Kafka Bridge charts are populated.

Kafka Bridge

Shows metrics for:

  • HTTP connections to the Kafka Bridge count

  • HTTP requests being processed count

  • Requests processed per second grouped by HTTP method

  • The total request rate grouped by response codes (2XX, 4XX, 5XX)

  • Bytes received and sent per second

  • Requests for each Kafka Bridge endpoint

  • Number of Kafka consumers, producers, and related opened connections used by the Kafka Bridge itself

  • Kafka producer:

    • The average number of records sent per second (grouped by topic)

    • The number of outgoing bytes sent to all brokers per second (grouped by topic)

    • The average number of records per second that resulted in errors (grouped by topic)

  • Kafka consumer:

    • The average number of records consumed per second (grouped by clientId-topic)

    • The average number of bytes consumed per second (grouped by clientId-topic)

    • Partitions assigned (grouped by clientId)

  • JVM memory used

  • JVM garbage collection time

  • JVM garbage collection count

6.5. Monitor Cruise Control

If you are already using Prometheus and Grafana for monitoring of built-in Kafka metrics, you can configure Prometheus to also scrape the Cruise Control Prometheus endpoint.

The example Grafana dashboard for Cruise Control provides:

  • Information about optimization proposals computation, goals violation, cluster balancedness, and more

  • Information about REST API calls for rebalance proposals and actual rebalance operations

  • JVM metrics from Cruise Control itself

6.5.1. Configuring Cruise Control

Enable Cruise Control metrics using the cruiseControl.metricsConfig property in the Kafka resource to provide a reference to a ConfigMap that contains JMX exporter configuration for the metrics to expose.

For example:

apiVersion: kafka.strimzi.io/v1beta2
kind: Kafka
metadata:
  name: my-cluster
spec:
  # ...
  kafka:
    # ...
  zookeeper:
    # ...
  cruiseControl:
    metricsConfig:
       type: jmxPrometheusExporter
       valueFrom:
         configMapKeyRef:
           name: my-config-map
           key: my-key

6.5.2. Enabling the Cruise Control Grafana dashboard

If you deployed Cruise Control with your Kafka cluster with the metrics enabled, you can enable Grafana to present the metrics data it exposes.

A Cruise Control dashboard is provided in the examples/metrics directory as a JSON file:

  • strimzi-cruise-control.json

When metrics data has been collected for some time, the Cruise Control charts are populated.

Cruise Control

Shows metrics for:

  • Number of snapshot windows that are monitored by Cruise Control

  • Number of time windows considered valid because they contain enough samples to compute an optimization proposal

  • Number of ongoing executions running for proposals or rebalances

  • Current balancedness score of the Kafka cluster as calculated by the anomaly detector component of Cruise Control (every 5 minutes by default)

  • Percentage of monitored partitions

  • Number of goal violations reported by the anomaly detector (every 5 minutes by default)

  • How often a disk read failure happens on the brokers

  • Rate of metric sample fetch failures

  • Time needed to compute an optimization proposal

  • Time needed to create the cluster model

  • How often a proposal request or an actual rebalance request is made through the Cruise Control REST API

  • How often the overall cluster state and the user tasks state are requested through the Cruise Control REST API

  • JVM memory used

  • JVM garbage collection time

  • JVM garbage collection count

7. Upgrading Strimzi

Strimzi can be upgraded to version latest to take advantage of new features and enhancements, performance improvements, and security options.

As part of the upgrade, you upgrade Kafka to the latest supported version. Each Kafka release introduces new features, improvements, and bug fixes to your Strimzi deployment.

Strimzi can be downgraded to the previous version if you encounter issues with the newer version.

Upgrade paths

Two upgrade paths are possible:

Incremental

Upgrading Strimzi from the previous minor version to version latest.

Multi-version

Upgrading Strimzi from an old version to version latest within a single upgrade (skipping one or more intermediate versions).

For example, upgrading from Strimzi 0.20.0 directly to Strimzi 0.22.

Upgrading from a version earlier than 0.22

The v1beta2 API version for all custom resources was introduced with Strimzi 0.22. For Strimzi 0.23 and newer, the v1alpha1 and v1beta1 API versions were removed from all Strimzi custom resources apart from KafkaTopic and KafkaUser.

If you are upgrading from a Strimzi version prior to version 0.22:

  1. Upgrade Strimzi to 0.22

  2. Convert the custom resources to v1beta2

  3. Upgrade Strimzi to 0.23 or newer

Note
As an alternative, you can install the custom resources from version 0.22, convert the resources, and then upgrade to 0.23 or newer.
Kafka version support

You can review supported Kafka versions in the Supported versions table.

  • The Operators column lists all released Strimzi versions (the Strimzi version is often called the "Operator version").

  • The Kafka versions column lists the supported Kafka versions for each Strimzi version.

Decide which Kafka version to upgrade to before beginning the Strimzi upgrade process.

Note

You can upgrade to a higher Kafka version as long as it is supported by your version of Strimzi. In some cases, you can also downgrade to a previous supported Kafka version.

Downtime and availability

If topics are configured for high availability, upgrading Strimzi should not cause any downtime for consumers and producers that publish and read data from those topics. Highly available topics have a replication factor of at least 3 and partitions distributed evenly among the brokers.

Upgrading Strimzi triggers rolling updates, where all brokers are restarted in turn, at different stages of the process. During rolling updates, not all brokers are online, so overall cluster availability is temporarily reduced. A reduction in cluster availability increases the chance that a broker failure will result in lost messages.

7.1. Required upgrade sequence

To upgrade brokers and clients without downtime, you must complete the Strimzi upgrade procedures in the following order:

  1. . When upgrading from 0.22 or earlier, update existing custom resources to support the v1beta2 API version.

  2. Update your Cluster Operator to a new Strimzi version.

    The approach you take depends on how you deployed the Cluster Operator.

    • If you deployed the Cluster Operator using the installation YAML files, perform your upgrade by modifying the Operator installation files, as described in Upgrading the Cluster Operator.

    • If you deployed the Cluster Operator from OperatorHub.io, use the Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) to change the update channel for the Strimzi Operators to a new Strimzi version.

      Depending on your chosen upgrade strategy, after updating the channel, either:

    • If you deployed the Cluster Operator using a Helm chart, use helm upgrade.

      The helm upgrade command does not upgrade the Custom Resource Definitions for Helm. Install the new CRDs manually after upgrading the Cluster Operator. You can access the CRDs from GitHub or find them in the crd subdirectory inside the Helm Chart.

  3. Upgrade all Kafka brokers and client applications to the latest supported Kafka version.

Optional: incremental cooperative rebalance upgrade

Consider upgrading consumers and Kafka Streams applications to use the incremental cooperative rebalance protocol for partition rebalances.

7.2. Strimzi custom resource upgrades

When upgrading Strimzi to latest from 0.22 or earlier, you must ensure that your custom resources are using API version v1beta2. You must upgrade the Custom Resource Definitions and the custom resources before upgrading to Strimzi 0.23 or newer. To perform the upgrade, you can use the API conversion tool provided with Strimzi 0.24. For more information, see the Strimzi 0.24.0 upgrade documentation.

7.3. Upgrading the Cluster Operator

This procedure describes how to upgrade a Cluster Operator deployment to use Strimzi latest.

Follow this procedure if you deployed the Cluster Operator using the installation YAML files rather than OperatorHub.io.

The availability of Kafka clusters managed by the Cluster Operator is not affected by the upgrade operation.

Note
Refer to the documentation supporting a specific version of Strimzi for information on how to upgrade to that version.
Prerequisites
Procedure
  1. Take note of any configuration changes made to the existing Cluster Operator resources (in the /install/cluster-operator directory). Any changes will be overwritten by the new version of the Cluster Operator.

  2. Update your custom resources to reflect the supported configuration options available for Strimzi version latest.

  3. Update the Cluster Operator.

    1. Modify the installation files for the new Cluster Operator version according to the namespace the Cluster Operator is running in.

      On Linux, use:

      sed -i 's/namespace: .*/namespace: my-cluster-operator-namespace/' install/cluster-operator/*RoleBinding*.yaml

      On MacOS, use:

      sed -i '' 's/namespace: .*/namespace: my-cluster-operator-namespace/' install/cluster-operator/*RoleBinding*.yaml
    2. If you modified one or more environment variables in your existing Cluster Operator Deployment, edit the install/cluster-operator/060-Deployment-strimzi-cluster-operator.yaml file to use those environment variables.

  4. When you have an updated configuration, deploy it along with the rest of the installation resources:

    kubectl replace -f install/cluster-operator

    Wait for the rolling updates to complete.

  5. If the new Operator version no longer supports the Kafka version you are upgrading from, the Cluster Operator returns a "Version not found" error message. Otherwise, no error message is returned.

    For example:

    "Version 2.4.0 is not supported. Supported versions are: 2.6.0, 2.6.1, 2.7.0."
    • If the error message is returned, upgrade to a Kafka version that is supported by the new Cluster Operator version:

      1. Edit the Kafka custom resource.

      2. Change the spec.kafka.version property to a supported Kafka version.

    • If the error message is not returned, go to the next step. You will upgrade the Kafka version later.

  6. Get the image for the Kafka pod to ensure the upgrade was successful:

    kubectl get pods my-cluster-kafka-0 -o jsonpath='{.spec.containers[0].image}'

    The image tag shows the new Operator version. For example:

    quay.io/strimzi/kafka:latest-kafka-2.8.0

Your Cluster Operator was upgraded to version latest but the version of Kafka running in the cluster it manages is unchanged.

Following the Cluster Operator upgrade, you must perform a Kafka upgrade.

7.4. Upgrading Kafka

After you have upgraded your Cluster Operator to latest, the next step is to upgrade all Kafka brokers to the latest supported version of Kafka.

Kafka upgrades are performed by the Cluster Operator through rolling updates of the Kafka brokers.

The Cluster Operator initiates rolling updates based on the Kafka cluster configuration.

If Kafka.spec.kafka.config contains…​ The Cluster Operator initiates…​

Both the inter.broker.protocol.version and the log.message.format.version.

A single rolling update. After the update, the inter.broker.protocol.version must be updated manually, followed by log.message.format.version. Changing each will trigger a further rolling update.

Either the inter.broker.protocol.version or the log.message.format.version.

Two rolling updates.

No configuration for the inter.broker.protocol.version or the log.message.format.version.

Two rolling updates.

As part of the Kafka upgrade, the Cluster Operator initiates rolling updates for ZooKeeper.

  • A single rolling update occurs even if the ZooKeeper version is unchanged.

  • Additional rolling updates occur if the new version of Kafka requires a new ZooKeeper version.

7.4.1. Kafka versions

Kafka’s log message format version and inter-broker protocol version specify, respectively, the log format version appended to messages and the version of the Kafka protocol used in a cluster. To ensure the correct versions are used, the upgrade process involves making configuration changes to existing Kafka brokers and code changes to client applications (consumers and producers).

The following table shows the differences between Kafka versions:

Kafka version Interbroker protocol version Log message format version ZooKeeper version

2.7.0

2.7

2.7

3.5.8

2.7.1

2.7

2.7

3.5.9

2.8.0

2.8

2.8

3.5.9

Inter-broker protocol version

In Kafka, the network protocol used for inter-broker communication is called the inter-broker protocol. Each version of Kafka has a compatible version of the inter-broker protocol. The minor version of the protocol typically increases to match the minor version of Kafka, as shown in the preceding table.

The inter-broker protocol version is set cluster wide in the Kafka resource. To change it, you edit the inter.broker.protocol.version property in Kafka.spec.kafka.config.

Log message format version

When a producer sends a message to a Kafka broker, the message is encoded using a specific format. The format can change between Kafka releases, so messages specify which version of the format they were encoded with. You can configure a Kafka broker to convert messages from newer format versions to a given older format version before the broker appends the message to the log.

In Kafka, there are two different methods for setting the message format version:

  • The message.format.version property is set on topics.

  • The log.message.format.version property is set on Kafka brokers.

The default value of message.format.version for a topic is defined by the log.message.format.version that is set on the Kafka broker. You can manually set the message.format.version of a topic by modifying its topic configuration.

The upgrade tasks in this section assume that the message format version is defined by the log.message.format.version.

7.4.2. Strategies for upgrading clients

The right approach to upgrading your client applications (including Kafka Connect connectors) depends on your particular circumstances.

Consuming applications need to receive messages in a message format that they understand. You can ensure that this is the case in one of two ways:

  • By upgrading all the consumers for a topic before upgrading any of the producers.

  • By having the brokers down-convert messages to an older format.

Using broker down-conversion puts extra load on the brokers, so it is not ideal to rely on down-conversion for all topics for a prolonged period of time. For brokers to perform optimally they should not be down converting messages at all.

Broker down-conversion is configured in two ways:

  • The topic-level message.format.version configures it for a single topic.

  • The broker-level log.message.format.version is the default for topics that do not have the topic-level message.format.version configured.

Messages published to a topic in a new-version format will be visible to consumers, because brokers perform down-conversion when they receive messages from producers, not when they are sent to consumers.

There are a number of strategies you can use to upgrade your clients:

Consumers first
  1. Upgrade all the consuming applications.

  2. Change the broker-level log.message.format.version to the new version.

  3. Upgrade all the producing applications.

    This strategy is straightforward, and avoids any broker down-conversion. However, it assumes that all consumers in your organization can be upgraded in a coordinated way, and it does not work for applications that are both consumers and producers. There is also a risk that, if there is a problem with the upgraded clients, new-format messages might get added to the message log so that you cannot revert to the previous consumer version.

Per-topic consumers first

For each topic:

  1. Upgrade all the consuming applications.

  2. Change the topic-level message.format.version to the new version.

  3. Upgrade all the producing applications.

    This strategy avoids any broker down-conversion, and means you can proceed on a topic-by-topic basis. It does not work for applications that are both consumers and producers of the same topic. Again, it has the risk that, if there is a problem with the upgraded clients, new-format messages might get added to the message log.

Per-topic consumers first, with down conversion

For each topic:

  1. Change the topic-level message.format.version to the old version (or rely on the topic defaulting to the broker-level log.message.format.version).

  2. Upgrade all the consuming and producing applications.

  3. Verify that the upgraded applications function correctly.

  4. Change the topic-level message.format.version to the new version.

    This strategy requires broker down-conversion, but the load on the brokers is minimized because it is only required for a single topic (or small group of topics) at a time. It also works for applications that are both consumers and producers of the same topic. This approach ensures that the upgraded producers and consumers are working correctly before you commit to using the new message format version.

    The main drawback of this approach is that it can be complicated to manage in a cluster with many topics and applications.

Other strategies for upgrading client applications are also possible.

Note
It is also possible to apply multiple strategies. For example, for the first few applications and topics the "per-topic consumers first, with down conversion" strategy can be used. When this has proved successful another, more efficient strategy can be considered acceptable to use instead.

7.4.3. Kafka version and image mappings

When upgrading Kafka, consider your settings for the STRIMZI_KAFKA_IMAGES environment variable and the Kafka.spec.kafka.version property.

  • Each Kafka resource can be configured with a Kafka.spec.kafka.version.

  • The Cluster Operator’s STRIMZI_KAFKA_IMAGES environment variable provides a mapping between the Kafka version and the image to be used when that version is requested in a given Kafka resource.

    • If Kafka.spec.kafka.image is not configured, the default image for the given version is used.

    • If Kafka.spec.kafka.image is configured, the default image is overridden.

Warning
The Cluster Operator cannot validate that an image actually contains a Kafka broker of the expected version. Take care to ensure that the given image corresponds to the given Kafka version.

7.4.4. Upgrading Kafka brokers and client applications

This procedure describes how to upgrade a Strimzi Kafka cluster to the latest supported Kafka version.

Compared to your current Kafka version, the new version might support a higher log message format version or inter-broker protocol version, or both. Follow the steps to upgrade these versions, if required. For more information, see Kafka versions.

You should also choose a strategy for upgrading clients. Kafka clients are upgraded in step 6 of this procedure.

Prerequisites

For the Kafka resource to be upgraded, check that:

  • The Cluster Operator, which supports both versions of Kafka, is up and running.

  • The Kafka.spec.kafka.config does not contain options that are not supported in the new Kafka version.

Procedure
  1. Update the Kafka cluster configuration:

    kubectl edit kafka my-cluster
  2. If configured, ensure that Kafka.spec.kafka.config has the log.message.format.version and inter.broker.protocol.version set to the defaults for the current Kafka version.

    For example, if upgrading from Kafka version 2.7.0 to 2.8.0:

    kind: Kafka
    spec:
      # ...
      kafka:
        version: 2.7.0
        config:
          log.message.format.version: "2.7"
          inter.broker.protocol.version: "2.7"
          # ...

    If log.message.format.version and inter.broker.protocol.version are not configured, Strimzi automatically updates these versions to the current defaults after the update to the Kafka version in the next step.

    Note
    The value of log.message.format.version and inter.broker.protocol.version must be strings to prevent them from being interpreted as floating point numbers.
  3. Change the Kafka.spec.kafka.version to specify the new Kafka version; leave the log.message.format.version and inter.broker.protocol.version at the defaults for the current Kafka version.

    Note

    Changing the kafka.version ensures that all brokers in the cluster will be upgraded to start using the new broker binaries. During this process, some brokers are using the old binaries while others have already upgraded to the new ones. Leaving the inter.broker.protocol.version unchanged ensures that the brokers can continue to communicate with each other throughout the upgrade.

    For example, if upgrading from Kafka 2.7.0 to 2.8.0:

    apiVersion: kafka.strimzi.io/v1beta2
    kind: Kafka
    spec:
      # ...
      kafka:
        version: 2.8.0 (1)
        config:
          log.message.format.version: "2.7" (2)
          inter.broker.protocol.version: "2.7" (3)
          # ...
    1. Kafka version is changed to the new version.

    2. Message format version is unchanged.

    3. Inter-broker protocol version is unchanged.

    Warning
    You cannot downgrade Kafka if the inter.broker.protocol.version for the new Kafka version changes. The inter-broker protocol version determines the schemas used for persistent metadata stored by the broker, including messages written to __consumer_offsets. The downgraded cluster will not understand the messages.
  4. If the image for the Kafka cluster is defined in the Kafka custom resource, in Kafka.spec.kafka.image, update the image to point to a container image with the new Kafka version.

  5. Save and exit the editor, then wait for rolling updates to complete.

    Check the progress of the rolling updates by watching the pod state transitions:

    kubectl get pods my-cluster-kafka-0 -o jsonpath='{.spec.containers[0].image}'

    The rolling updates ensure that each pod is using the broker binaries for the new version of Kafka.

  6. Depending on your chosen strategy for upgrading clients, upgrade all client applications to use the new version of the client binaries.

    If required, set the version property for Kafka Connect and MirrorMaker as the new version of Kafka:

    1. For Kafka Connect, update KafkaConnect.spec.version.

    2. For MirrorMaker, update KafkaMirrorMaker.spec.version.

    3. For MirrorMaker 2.0, update KafkaMirrorMaker2.spec.version.

  7. If configured, update the Kafka resource to use the new inter.broker.protocol.version version. Otherwise, go to step 9.

    For example, if upgrading to Kafka 2.8.0:

    apiVersion: kafka.strimzi.io/v1beta2
    kind: Kafka
    spec:
      # ...
      kafka:
        version: 2.8.0
        config:
          log.message.format.version: "2.7"
          inter.broker.protocol.version: "2.8"
          # ...
  8. Wait for the Cluster Operator to update the cluster.

  9. If configured, update the Kafka resource to use the new log.message.format.version version. Otherwise, go to step 10.

    For example, if upgrading to Kafka 2.8.0:

    apiVersion: kafka.strimzi.io/v1beta2
    kind: Kafka
    spec:
      # ...
      kafka:
        version: 2.8.0
        config:
          log.message.format.version: "2.8"
          inter.broker.protocol.version: "2.8"
          # ...
  10. Wait for the Cluster Operator to update the cluster.

    • The Kafka cluster and clients are now using the new Kafka version.

    • The brokers are configured to send messages using the inter-broker protocol version and message format version of the new version of Kafka.

Following the Kafka upgrade, if required, you can:

7.5. Upgrading consumers to cooperative rebalancing

You can upgrade Kafka consumers and Kafka Streams applications to use the incremental cooperative rebalance protocol for partition rebalances instead of the default eager rebalance protocol. The new protocol was added in Kafka 2.4.0.

Consumers keep their partition assignments in a cooperative rebalance and only revoke them at the end of the process, if needed to achieve a balanced cluster. This reduces the unavailability of the consumer group or Kafka Streams application.

Note
Upgrading to the incremental cooperative rebalance protocol is optional. The eager rebalance protocol is still supported.
Prerequisites
Procedure

To upgrade a Kafka consumer to use the incremental cooperative rebalance protocol:

  1. Replace the Kafka clients .jar file with the new version.

  2. In the consumer configuration, append cooperative-sticky to the partition.assignment.strategy. For example, if the range strategy is set, change the configuration to range, cooperative-sticky.

  3. Restart each consumer in the group in turn, waiting for the consumer to rejoin the group after each restart.

  4. Reconfigure each consumer in the group by removing the earlier partition.assignment.strategy from the consumer configuration, leaving only the cooperative-sticky strategy.

  5. Restart each consumer in the group in turn, waiting for the consumer to rejoin the group after each restart.

To upgrade a Kafka Streams application to use the incremental cooperative rebalance protocol:

  1. Replace the Kafka Streams .jar file with the new version.

  2. In the Kafka Streams configuration, set the upgrade.from configuration parameter to the Kafka version you are upgrading from (for example, 2.3).

  3. Restart each of the stream processors (nodes) in turn.

  4. Remove the upgrade.from configuration parameter from the Kafka Streams configuration.

  5. Restart each consumer in the group in turn.

Additional resources

8. Downgrading Strimzi

If you are encountering issues with the version of Strimzi you upgraded to, you can revert your installation to the previous version.

You can perform a downgrade to:

  1. Revert your Cluster Operator to the previous Strimzi version.

  2. Downgrade all Kafka brokers and client applications to the previous Kafka version.

If the previous version of Strimzi does not support the version of Kafka you are using, you can also downgrade Kafka as long as the log message format versions appended to messages match.

8.1. Downgrading the Cluster Operator to a previous version

If you are encountering issues with Strimzi, you can revert your installation.

This procedure describes how to downgrade a Cluster Operator deployment to a previous version.

Prerequisites
Procedure
  1. Take note of any configuration changes made to the existing Cluster Operator resources (in the /install/cluster-operator directory). Any changes will be overwritten by the previous version of the Cluster Operator.

  2. Revert your custom resources to reflect the supported configuration options available for the version of Strimzi you are downgrading to.

  3. Update the Cluster Operator.

    1. Modify the installation files for the previous version according to the namespace the Cluster Operator is running in.

      On Linux, use:

      sed -i 's/namespace: .*/namespace: my-cluster-operator-namespace/' install/cluster-operator/*RoleBinding*.yaml

      On MacOS, use:

      sed -i '' 's/namespace: .*/namespace: my-cluster-operator-namespace/' install/cluster-operator/*RoleBinding*.yaml
    2. If you modified one or more environment variables in your existing Cluster Operator Deployment, edit the install/cluster-operator/060-Deployment-strimzi-cluster-operator.yaml file to use those environment variables.

  4. When you have an updated configuration, deploy it along with the rest of the installation resources:

    kubectl replace -f install/cluster-operator

    Wait for the rolling updates to complete.

  5. Get the image for the Kafka pod to ensure the downgrade was successful:

    kubectl get pod my-cluster-kafka-0 -o jsonpath='{.spec.containers[0].image}'

    The image tag shows the new Strimzi version followed by the Kafka version. For example, NEW-STRIMZI-VERSION-kafka-CURRENT-KAFKA-VERSION.

Your Cluster Operator was downgraded to the previous version.

8.2. Downgrading Kafka

Kafka version downgrades are performed by the Cluster Operator.

8.2.1. Kafka version compatibility for downgrades

Kafka downgrades are dependent on compatible current and target Kafka versions, and the state at which messages have been logged.

You cannot revert to the previous Kafka version if that version does not support any of the inter.broker.protocol.version settings which have ever been used in that cluster, or messages have been added to message logs that use a newer log.message.format.version.

The inter.broker.protocol.version determines the schemas used for persistent metadata stored by the broker, such as the schema for messages written to __consumer_offsets. If you downgrade to a version of Kafka that does not understand an inter.broker.protocol.version that has (ever) been previously used in the cluster the broker will encounter data it cannot understand.

If the target downgrade version of Kafka has:

  • The same log.message.format.version as the current version, the Cluster Operator downgrades by performing a single rolling restart of the brokers.

  • A different log.message.format.version, downgrading is only possible if the running cluster has always had log.message.format.version set to the version used by the downgraded version. This is typically only the case if the upgrade procedure was aborted before the log.message.format.version was changed. In this case, the downgrade requires:

    • Two rolling restarts of the brokers if the interbroker protocol of the two versions is different

    • A single rolling restart if they are the same

Downgrading is not possible if the new version has ever used a log.message.format.version that is not supported by the previous version, including when the default value for log.message.format.version is used. For example, this resource can be downgraded to Kafka version 2.7.0 because the log.message.format.version has not been changed:

apiVersion: kafka.strimzi.io/v1beta2
kind: Kafka
spec:
  # ...
  kafka:
    version: 2.8.0
    config:
      log.message.format.version: "2.7"
      # ...

The downgrade would not be possible if the log.message.format.version was set at "2.8" or a value was absent (so that the parameter took the default value for a 2.8.0 broker of 2.8).

8.2.2. Downgrading Kafka brokers and client applications

This procedure describes how you can downgrade a Strimzi Kafka cluster to a lower (previous) version of Kafka, such as downgrading from 2.8.0 to 2.7.0.

Prerequisites

For the Kafka resource to be downgraded, check:

  • IMPORTANT: Compatibility of Kafka versions.

  • The Cluster Operator, which supports both versions of Kafka, is up and running.

  • The Kafka.spec.kafka.config does not contain options that are not supported by the Kafka version being downgraded to.

  • The Kafka.spec.kafka.config has a log.message.format.version and inter.broker.protocol.version that is supported by the Kafka version being downgraded to.

Procedure
  1. Update the Kafka cluster configuration.

    kubectl edit kafka KAFKA-CONFIGURATION-FILE
  2. Change the Kafka.spec.kafka.version to specify the previous version.

    For example, if downgrading from Kafka 2.8.0 to 2.7.0:

    apiVersion: kafka.strimzi.io/v1beta2
    kind: Kafka
    spec:
      # ...
      kafka:
        version: 2.7.0 (1)
        config:
          log.message.format.version: "2.7" (2)
          inter.broker.protocol.version: "2.7" (3)
          # ...
    1. Kafka version is changed to the previous version.

    2. Message format version is unchanged.

    3. Inter-broker protocol version is unchanged.

    Note
    You must format the value of log.message.format.version and inter.broker.protocol.version as a string to prevent it from being interpreted as a floating point number.
  3. If the image for the Kafka version is different from the image defined in STRIMZI_KAFKA_IMAGES for the Cluster Operator, update Kafka.spec.kafka.image.

  4. Save and exit the editor, then wait for rolling updates to complete.

    Check the update in the logs or by watching the pod state transitions:

    kubectl logs -f CLUSTER-OPERATOR-POD-NAME | grep -E "Kafka version downgrade from [0-9.]+ to [0-9.]+, phase ([0-9]+) of \1 completed"
    kubectl get pod -w

    Check the Cluster Operator logs for an INFO level message:

    Reconciliation #NUM(watch) Kafka(NAMESPACE/NAME): Kafka version downgrade from FROM-VERSION to TO-VERSION, phase 1 of 1 completed
  5. Downgrade all client applications (consumers) to use the previous version of the client binaries.

    The Kafka cluster and clients are now using the previous Kafka version.

  6. If you are reverting back to a version of Strimzi earlier than 0.22, which uses ZooKeeper for the storage of topic metadata, delete the internal topic store topics from the Kafka cluster.

    kubectl run kafka-admin -ti --image=quay.io/strimzi/kafka:latest-kafka-2.8.0 --rm=true --restart=Never -- ./bin/kafka-topics.sh --bootstrap-server localhost:9092 --topic __strimzi-topic-operator-kstreams-topic-store-changelog --delete && ./bin/kafka-topics.sh --bootstrap-server localhost:9092 --topic __strimzi_store_topic --delete
Additional resources